ŻYWIENIE A RAK


EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON NUTRITION AND CANCER,

Lyon, France, 21-24 JUNE, 2001

 A meeting organized by IARC, with the support of the ´ Europe against Cancer Ş Programme, will take place in Lyon, France on the topic of nutrition and cancer, from 21 to 24 June, 2001 with some 350 participants. The main objectives of this conference will be to review the state-of-the-art of research on the links between nutrition and cancer and carry out a critical analysis of the data collected by the many scientific studies devoted to this subject.

This conference will bring together a broad range of international researchers with various backgrounds and different research perspectives, to examine this topic from a multifactorial and multidisciplinary point of view. Nutrition will be considered in terms of the diversity of dietary habits, and the various mechanisms of carcinogenesis under study today, in order to explain the observed associations between diet (and nutrition) and cancer. As an example, the speakers will describe the relationships between endogenous hormone balance and diet, physical activity, obesity and genetic susceptibility, an area of growing interest.

 
Since 1991, the IARC, thanks to funding from the European Union, has been coordinating the EPIC study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), which is the largest study ever conducted on the relationship between diet and cancer, with over 500,000 subjects in 10 European countries. This prospective study aims at elucidating the cause-effect relationships between dietary balance, anthropometric measurements, physical activity and hormonal factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors, and cancer. The first EPIC results will be presented at the Lyon conference, particularly on the relationship between diet and the major cancers prevalent in industrialized countries. Through this wide approach, the study will also allow valuable conclusions to be drawn in terms of prevention and health policies.

A press conference will review the present knowledge and future prospects covered by the Conference, on Thursday, 21 June at 06:30 PM at the Lyon City Hall.


NUTRITION AND CANCER: FIRST RESULTS OF THE EPIC STUDY

A number of estimations agree that in the economically developed world, roughly 30% of all cancers are associated with nutritional factors and therefore theoretically could be avoided by a better dietary balance, the prevention of overweight and adequate physical activity.

The European Conference on Nutrition and Cancer that will open tomorrow Thursday 21 June in Lyon, France, will allow several hundred researchers to exchange views and results of on-going studies on nutrition, metabolic balance and certain types of cancer. Already, a number of preliminary results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)1 , which will be discussed starting tomorrow, are being disclosed concerning three groups of foods (fruits and vegetables, alcohol and animal products).

1- The protective effect of fruits and vegetables
The EPIC study confirms the reduction in incidence of cancers of the colon and rectum and upper aerodigestive tract associated with these. However, the protective effect previously found for stomach and lung cancers does not clearly come out : one should note that the follow-up period is relatively short, just as the number of cancer cases that occurred during that period.

2- The disastrous effects of alcohol and tobacco
The EPIC results confirm, in addition to the obvious effect of tobacco on lung cancer risk, the very strong effect of the consumption of alcohol and tobacco on cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. For example, the risk for one of these cancers for someone who smokes over a pack per day is 8 times higher than that of a non-smoker.
As far as alcohol is concerned, an intake higher than 60g of ethanol per day (roughly a consumption of a standard .75 liter bottle of wine) will increase the risk of one of these cancers 9 times. One should emphasize the fact that the combination of these will have a multiplier effect which will increase the risk of our smoker-drinker 50 times !
This precisely confirms the results obtained by an IARC team fifteen years ago on the cancers of the larynx, pharynx and esophagus in Southern European countries.
 

The protective effect of the consumption of fruits and vegetables was also quantified. A daily consumption of approximately 500g or more is sufficient to decrease by 50% the incidence of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract.

3- Contrasting results for preserved meats and red meats, and protective effect of fish
As far as meat, fish and dairy products (animal products), the analyses focused on cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach and upper aerodigestive tract. The associations that clearly came out of these were an increase of the colon cancer risk with total consumption of preserved meats and a significant reduction of the same risk with fish consumption.
On the other hand, it is clear that consumption of red meat does not seem for the time being to be associated with the risk of developing colon/rectum cancer. However, these analyses have not yet taken into account the method used for cooking. This important question will be carefully analysed at a later stage.

Consumption of poultry is not associated with an increase in cancer risk and is in fact possibly associated with a reduction of that risk.
There was a positive association between total consumption of meat and cancers of the stomach and of the upper aerodigestive tract ; however, this association is weak and non significant and will be studied further.

From a larger preventive perspective, for the general public, the multifactor aspect of the incidence of diet-related cancers should be stressed, along with the importance of physical activity and prevention of obesity.

These, in a nutshell, are the first significant results of this landmark study that will be discussed over the next few days here in Lyon.
 


1 EPIC is the largest epidemiological study ever conducted on the relationship between diet and cancer, with over 500,000 subjects in 10 European countries. This prospective study aims at elucidating the cause-effect relationships between dietary balance, anthropometric measurements, physical activity and hormonal factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors, and specific types of cancer.

Polska Agencja Prasowa, 1. października 2001r.

Prof. Nowacki: nowotwór jelita grubego jest chorobą cywilizacyjną

Głównymi przyczynami zachorowalności na nowotwór jelita grubego jest skład naszej diety i siedzący tryb życia - powiedział wczoraj PAP prof. Marek Nowacki z Kliniki Nowotworów Jelita Grubego w Warszawie.

     "Powinniśmy ograniczać spożycie mięsa i tłuszczów pochodzenia zwierzęcego. Ponadto nasza dieta powinna zostać wzbogacona w surowe warzywa i owoce oraz chude produkty mleczne. Istotny jest też ruch na świeżym powietrzu. Nie gwarantuję, że zniknie całkowicie problem tej choroby, ale zmniejszy się ryzyko zachorowalności na nią" - wyjaśniał Nowacki.

Według profesora niepokojąca jest także mała świadomość społeczeństwa. "W Polsce o tym rodzaju nowotworu mówi się niewiele. Odzwierciedleniem tego jest chociażby to, że ok. 50 procent pacjentów trafia do nas w zaawansowanym stadium choroby, a dla nas przecież najważniejszy jest czas".

 Rocznie w Polsce na raka jelita grubego umiera 8 tys. osób. Liczbę nowych zachorowań szacuje się na 11 tys.

 Dlatego w zeszłym roku lekarze z Centrum Onkologii w Warszawie zaczęli przeprowadzać tzw. badania przesiewowe. Miały one wyodrębnić z grupy teoretycznie zdrowych Polaków osoby szczególnie zagrożone rakiem jelita grubego lub mające predyspozycje do tej choroby. "Dotychczas przebadaliśmy ponad 8 tys. ludzi. U ponad 30 procent wykryliśmy gruczolaki i polipy, kwalifikujące się do operacyjnego usunięcia. 0,75 procent osób miało nowotwory niewykrywalne klinicznie" - podkreślał profesor.

"Najistotniejsze jest to, by możliwie jak najszybciej wykryć chorobę. Nie łudźmy się na nowotwór jelita grubego będziemy chorować i umierać coraz częściej - to choroba cywilizacyjna" - mówił prof. Nowacki.

Zdaniem profesora, pacjenci powinni zgłaszać się do onkologa w momencie, gdy zauważą jakieś nieprawidłowości, np. krwawienie z przewodu pokarmowego. "Do Centrum Onkologii można zgłaszać się bez skierowania lekarza rodzinnego" - podkreślił.
 




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