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THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND

BY NEAL ASCHERSON

PART 1

PART 2
PART 3
PART 4


THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND

BY NEAL ASCHERSON

excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.,
New York 1988

http://www.halat.pl/poland.html
 

Illustrated

 

The Polish way: do it your way, find your strength and wisdom through the Word of God. Fine art photography by Zbigniew Halat
The Polish way: do it your way, find your strength and wisdom through the Word of God. Fine art photography by Zbigniew Halat

ZWYCIĘSTWO POLSKI I CAŁEGO ŚWIATA
ludzie czystych serc rozpalają płomień wolności
POLAND'S AND THE WHOLE WORLD'S VICTORY
the people of pure hearts are kindling the flame of freedom

ZWYCIĘSTWO POLSKI I  CAŁEGO ŚWIATA ludzie czystych serc rozpalają płomień wolności Zdeklarowani katolicy: p. Andrzej Duda, 43, najmłodszy prezydent na świecie, jego żona Agata i ich córka Kinga, lat 20, studentka prawa na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim w Krakowie Declared Catholics Mr Andrew Duda, 43, the world youngest president, his wife Agatha, and their daughter Kinga, age 20, law student at the Jagiellonian University of Cracow, he people of pure hearts are kindling the flame of freedom POLAND'S AND THE WHOLE WORLD'S VICTORY
Declared Catholics Mr Andrew Duda, 43, the world youngest president, his wife Agatha, 
and their daughter Kinga, age 20, law student at the Jagiellonian University of Cracow 
Zdeklarowani katolicy: p. Andrzej Duda, 43, najmłodszy prezydent na świecie, jego żona Agata 
i ich córka Kinga, lat 20, studentka prawa na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim w Krakowie


Thinking my country
John Paul II (Karol Wojtyła)
2005

Freedom — a continuing conquest
It cannot simply be possessed!
It comes as a gift, but keeping it is a struggle
Gift and struggle are inscribed on pages, hidden yet open.
For freedom you pay with all your being, therefore call that your freedom
Which allows you, in paying the price,
To possess yourself anew.
At such a price do we enter history and touch her epochs.
Where is the dividing-line between those generations who paid too little
And those who paid too much?
On which side of that line are we?

in 'Memory and Identity: Personal reflections'
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.




And I cry—I who am a Son of the land of Poland
and who am also Pope John Paul II
- I cry from all the depths of this Millennium,
I cry on the vigil of Pentecost:

Let your Spirit descend.
Let your Spirit descend.
and renew the face of the earth,
the face of this land.

Amen.

HOLY MASS
HOMILY OF HIS HOLINESS JOHN PAUL II
Victory Square, Warsaw, 2 June 1979
full text



Poland faithful to her Christian heritage

Andrzej Duda, President of Poland, April 15, 2016: Poland is and will remain true to her Christian heritage. For it is in this heritage that we have a well-tested, strong foundation for the future. King Sigismund III Vasa Column in Warsaw. Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat

Andrzej Duda, President of Poland, April 15, 2016: Poland is and will remain true to her Christian heritage. For it is in this heritage that we have a well-tested, strong foundation for the future. King Sigismund III Vasa Column in Warsaw. Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat

President of Poland Andrzej Duda
The President's Speech, Friday, 15 April 2016
National Assembly’s Session on the Occasion of the Celebration of the 1050th Anniversary of the Baptism of Poland
here

Mr. Speaker of the Sejm,
Mr. Speaker of the Senate,
Madam Prime Minister, 
Your Eminence Cardinal Legate,
Your Eminence Primate of Poland,
Your Excellency Archbishop, Metropolitan of Poznań,
Former Presidents of Poland,

Ministers, 
Members of Parliament,
Senators, 
Representatives of European Parliaments, 
Your Excellency Archbishop, Apostolic Nuncio, 
Your Excellencies Archbishops and Bishops,
The Reverend Priests,
Representatives of Churches and Ecclesiastical Communities,

Your Excellencies Ambassadors,
Representatives of Local Authorities,
Dear Hosts and Guests present here today,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

The Baptism of Duke Mieszko I is the most important event in the entire history of the Polish state and nation. I do not say it was, I say it is for the decision taken by our first historical ruler had predetermined the whole future to come for our country. Our Christian legacy continues to shape the destinies of Poland and of each and every one of us, Polish people, until this very day. This is what Holy Father John Paul II had in mind when he observed: ‘Without Christ, one cannot comprehend the history of Poland’.

Tradition has it that the baptism of the ruler of the Polan people most likely took place on the Holy Saturday of 14 April 966. And it was already at that point that Poland was born. From the baptismal waters it emerged for a new Christian life. It was born for the world, emerging from the prehistoric era and entering the arena of European history. It was also born for its own sake: as a national and political community, since the adoption of the Latin rite at baptism defined our Polish identity. From that time on, we started thinking and speaking of ourselves as ‘we, the Poles’.

Back then, we said ‘yes’ to freedom and self-determination. We demonstrated that we were capable of building our nation and our own state solicitous about its welfare. To build it, defend it and die for it. It was not predetermined that the work would succeed, that a community would be formed. And yet, the work was crowned with success. A community was successfully built on a foundation of faith which has ever since inextricably grown into our identity, often featuring in our history as the principal and final shield of freedom and solidarity. By being baptized our forefathers defined the core around which the magnificent Polish nation would then be formed. And in the darkest moments, when our enemies tried to destroy the Church in order to bring down the groundwork of our Polish identity, the Polish people would defy the object and would crowd in temples in pursuit of their sense of community, and thus testifying to the timeless wisdom of the decision once taken by our forefathers.

Therefore, 966 is the most important landmark in our history. In our solemn ceremony today we celebrate the 1050th anniversary of ‘the birth’ of our nation and our Homeland. It is a signal honour and a great joy to have us all gathered here in Poznań, the seat of the first bishopric on Polish soil; to have the Republic's highest authorities, the Episcopate and clergy of the Catholic Church and other Christian Communities reunited with representatives of many friendly countries from Europe and the world to inaugurate the celebration of this venerable jubilee. I cordially thank all our distinguished and most welcome guests for coming.

This is a great celebration time of the ‘Polish spirit’, which is the source of our pride and joy. It will carry on into coming months to spread all over the country. It will culminate in the first ever visit to Poland by Pope Francis and the World Youth Days. I trust that thanks to the vast efforts made by the organizers, thanks to active engagement of thousands of volunteers, this will be an occasion for unsurpassed spiritual experience.

Commencing these jubilee celebrations, we turn our minds to the previous occasion of the millennial celebration of the Baptism of Poland in 1966. This was an extraordinary experience for our whole community and a unique event of the kind in Central and Eastern Europe.

We, the Polish people, had been then struggling for 27 years under a regime imposed on us first by German occupying forces, then by communists after the war. Equally the former and the latter worked to weaken and break the bond between our nation and the Church. They realized that this way they would shake the very foundations of our community, that a nation deprived of its spiritual anchorage would be easily remodelled into enslaved masses. To this end, the Nazis applied bloody terror. The communists in power after the war sought to make the Polish people turn away from Christianity. They promoted an atheist ideology, persecuted priests and the faithful alike. They even went as far as to imprison the Primate of Poland.

And in those days, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński was inspired with the idea to protect the Polish and Christian identity of the nation against indoctrination and repression by organizing a great National Retreat. It was ushered in by the 1956 Jasna Góra Oaths of the Polish Nation, a direct reference to the oaths made by King John II Casimir in Lvov 300 years earlier. Then, a nine-year novena followed to prepare the Polish people for the millennial celebrations.

Fifty years ago, in April 1966, the millennial celebrations of the Baptism of Poland began. On 3 May, on the green at the Jasna Góra Sanctuary 250 000 of the faithful took part in a commemoration. The celebrations lasted a full year, bringing together countless numbers of Polish people. Moreover, the jubilee was celebrated among more than 50 000 of expatriate Poles in London and Chicago, Rome and Paris, even in remote Australia and New Zealand.

One can safely claim that thanks to the initiative of the Primate of the Millennium, the entire Polish nation reinforced its bond to its Christian heritage. This happened in spite of the obstacles mounted by the communist regime who for instance ‘arrested’ a copy of the icon of Our Lady of Jasna Góra, provoked the faithful to clash with the police, tried to bloc access to the millennium celebrations and to disturb their course, and finally organized rival 1st millennium of the Polish state celebrations, forcing whole crews of factories and institutions to participate.

The 1966 millennial celebrations and the particular role played by the Primate of the Millennium, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, revealed the timeless significance of the Baptism of Mieszko I and the uniting power of Christianity for our community. The nation rejected the false slogan: ‘The Polish People’s Republic is the crowning glory of the millennium of our state’. Nor were the Polish people misled by the propaganda initiative to build one thousand schools to commemorate our millennium, this in spite of the fact that it produced valid and good results for the development of education and improvement of teaching conditions. The Poles opted for the faithfulness to the Church, authentic love of their Homeland and hope for regaining of freedom. The authority of the bishops and priests was reinforced. The life’s work of Primate Wyszyński paved the way for the pontificate of the Holy Father John Paul II and for the peaceful ‘Solidarity’ revolution.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

The Millennium had lent us, Poles, a sense of sovereignty in its most fundamental dimension: as free people and free citizens. Many initiatives taken by parish communities in defence of their priests and churches throughout the duration of the People's Republic of Poland, full commitment of the faithful who kept illegally building new churches in defiance of the authorities, spontaneous efforts to get organized and mass participation in the celebrations from 1956 to 1966, all of this proved that there is a massive power to be unleashed in our community, our power whose origins lie in our shared national and Christian identity. The power which manifested itself on a number of occasions in our history in recent centuries, which helped us to weather the most trying experiences: the loss of civil liberties and of an independent state, the attempts to denationalise and de-Christianise our people. The power which carried us through confrontation with our enemies, partitioning powers, occupying forces and led us to win and get the upper hand as even stronger and more united a nation.

We have always taken and we will always take pride in this invincible national spirit. We can and are willing to draw on this great treasure of ours. It is also a lesson for the future for us: that we, the Polish people, can accomplish great, momentous things, if only we work together in accordance with the values that unite us. The values that have their source in the unbreakable bond between the Polish spirit and its Christian roots.

A thousand and fifty years ago, Poland joined the Christian community of that era. She did so of her own accord. Aware of the benefits that this act would bring, including political benefits. Thanks to Duke Mieszko’s far-sighted decision Christianisation provided a powerful stimulus for Poland’s development. The state gained a stronger basis on which to build its security and sovereignty. Over time it became increasingly modern, more efficiently governed, more internally integrated.

The preachers of the Good News opened before the Polish people an enormous treasury of spiritual riches, promoting the Christian vision of man in our culture. Since the end of the 10th century, the Decalogue and the Gospel have become ever more deeply rooted in millions of hearts on the banks of the Warta and the Vistula, the Oder and the Bug, the Neman and the Dneper rivers. They have provided a motivation to build a better, more humane world. That is why our joining the domain of Christian civilization, in its Latin rite, represented a real breakthrough for us.

The three pillars of this civilization have also become the pillars of Polish identity and culture.

The first of the three pillars has been and remains Greek philosophy, or the love of wisdom. And that is the primacy of objective truth. Precise instruments for investigating and analysing reality. An immovable foundation for the development of all sciences to this very day.

The second pillar has been and remains Roman legal thought and government concept. The idea of the rule of law. The idea of a republic, i.e. a state that is a common good of the citizens that rule it. It is also the civic ethos, an ethos of privileges connected with responsibilities. These are principles improved and tested over the centuries, principles that provide the groundwork also for modern-day civil, criminal, procedural and national law.

The third pillar has been and remains the core of Christian thought: the Old and the New Testament, the Decalogue and the Gospel. This novel, revolutionary vision of humanity as a family, as a community of brothers and sisters equal before the Father and His moral law. It is also a call for peace, for repentance for any evil done and for forgiveness for any wrongdoing one has suffered. An imperative to give priority to the human person over objects, over mundane advantages and the desire for possession. The protection of the weaker ones, an appeal for solidarity in helping the needy and the brilliant subsidiarity principle. It is the recognition of the dignity of women and the contribution made by them to the lives of societies in various fields. The idea of government and superiority as service and the belief that rulers, too, are subject to moral judgment. Christianity is also a unique concept of the separation between the sacred and the profane, that which is divine and that which belongs to Caesar. The idea of autonomy, but at the same time of cooperation between the secular and spiritual authorities. These are also institutions such as the university and the local school, the hospital and the orphanage. It is a new vision of military, medical and economic ethics. And, last but not least, the heights of art and genius, achieved by artists inspired by Christianity: visual artists, architects, musicians and poets.

Therefore, it should not come as a surprise to anyone that it is only in the circle of this particular civilization that ideas and phenomena such as the concept of inalienable human rights as every human’s birthright, constitutionalism, a democratic state of the rule of law, universal international law, workers’ and emancipation movements and the modern public debate ethos have appeared. All of them are deeply rooted in the Christian heritage.

Today, it is not only Athens, Rome and Jerusalem that define the scope of this civilization. Thanks to the efforts of the 30 generations of Poles, new important centres have been added to the map of Christianitas.

For example Gniezno, where the relics of St. Adalbert, who spread the faith with his word and not with the sword, repose.

Toruń and Frombork, cities connected with Nicolaus Copernicus, the chancellor of the Warmia chapter, and the author of one of the greatest breakthroughs in the history of human thought.

Cracow, the city of St. Bishop Stanislaus of Szczepanow, a brave proponent of the idea of moral duties of public authorities, the city of the Cracow Academy and of the Reverend Paweł Włodkowic (Paulus Vladimiri), one of the most outstanding theoreticians of religious tolerance. It is the Cracow of Karol Wojtyła, Saint Pope John Paul II, who ushered the Church into the third millennium in the full sense of the term.

Poznań, the bishopric capital of Bishop Wawrzyniec Goślicki, a 16th-century author of original conceptions of government, which became a source of inspiration for the authors of the American Constitution and numerous other opponents of monarchic lawlessness.

Brześć Litewski (Brest-Litovsk), the place where an ecclesiastical union was contracted, one of the most important efforts at reconciling the Christian West and the Christian East.

Częstochowa, the city one needs to visit in order to appreciate the special status and respect that women enjoy in Poland. The city where Bogurodzica, The Mother of God, a hymn regarded as the first national anthem of Poland, continues to be sung before the icon of Our Lady of Jasna Góra, Poland’s most venerated cult object.

Warsaw, the capital of a state without stakes and religious wars. The city where the Sejm of the Polish Commonwealth enacted the Confederation of Warsaw, the first legislative act in the world to guarantee universal religious tolerance. This is Warsaw, the seat of King John III Sobieski, the victor of the battle of Vienna, and the city on the outskirts of which an invasion of communist barbarism against Europe was stopped in 1920.

These are hundreds of localities, especially in Poland’s old eastern Borderland region, where ethnic and religious minorities used to live peacefully side by side. 

Last but not least, these are localities connected to the lives and achievements of our numerous compatriots, world-famous artists, men and women of letters, scholars and inventors, individuals who have impressively paid back a debt of gratitude to the culture which had shaped them.

Christian civilization, for the past 1050 years co-created and defended with great dedication by the Polish people, is the result of titanic work and struggle of millions of people, an effect of numerous inquiries and experiments, historical trials and errors. It is a mature, universal creation, with a powerful impact on humanity as a whole.

It is not a fossil. It keeps organically evolving. It needs its young leaves and sprouts just as much as it needs its hidden roots. It also needs a trunk to mediate between them, that is a natural synthesis of the old and the new.

A tree may be felled. One may poison its roots and watch it wither. This does not take a lot of effort or too much time. However, to plant a new tree and wait for it to grow and bring fruit is a long process.

That is why the price for destroying the foundations of our civilization and attempts to replace them with other concepts, incoherent and loosely sketched, has always been and will always be enormous suffering and devastation. This was most clearly demonstrated by the 20th century and its two ideological projects: communism and Nazism, with their horrible consequences.

The 21st century has quickly faced us with new, difficult challenges. In a global village, the natural rivalry between different civilization models has attained an unprecedented intensity.

In Poland and in Europe, debates are ongoing on how to address these new challenges. I personally believe that the thing to do in this situation is to trust the strength of our identity, to draw on the rich treasury of ideas, experiences and solutions developed in a combined mainstream of the two great traditions: the Greco-Roman and the Judeo-Christian ones.

They are what we should base our actions on.

Indeed, the primary responsibility of the President, the Senate, the Sejm and the Government of the Republic of Poland is solicitude for our present day. Solicitude to ensure a Poland and a Europe where the dignity, rights and aspirations of all citizens are respected and protected. Solicitude to ensure a Poland and a Europe where solidarity and a sense of community should take precedence over rivalry and a play of interests. However, solicitude to ensure a good tomorrow is an equally important task for us. Solicitude to ensure that our heritage of tolerance and openness, our freedom and our material as well as spiritual strength are preserved and allowed to grow further. 

Ladies and Gentlemen,

We are gathered here together today. In the Poznań of the Piast dynasty, the cradle of our state and of our nation, the cradle of our community, on the 1050th anniversary of Mieszko’s baptism. We are here because we understand the responsibility that we shoulder. Our responsibility both towards history and towards the future generations of Poles.

In the eve of Poland’s accession to the European Union, Pope John Paul II pointed out that this was a great opportunity for our nation to enrich the West spiritually, the same West that once brought the Christian faith to us. Europe needs Poland, and Poland needs Europe, said the Holy Father. That is why, in paying tribute to our far-sighted predecessors of 1050 years ago, I would like to state most emphatically today that, following the guidance of our great compatriot, Poland is and will remain true to her Christian heritage. For it is in this heritage that we have a well-tested, strong foundation for the future.

Andrzej Duda
President of the Republic of Poland




ANNO DOMINI 966 MESCO DUX BAPTIZATUR
ROKU PAŃSKIEGO 966 KSIĄŻĘ MIESZKO ZOSTAŁ OCHRZCZONY - IN THE YEAR OF THE LORD 966, DUKE MIESZKO WAS BAPTIZED.

ANNO DOMINI 966 MESCO DUX BAPTIZATUR. ROKU PAŃSKIEGO 966 KSIĄŻĘ MIESZKO ZOSTAŁ OCHRZCZONY - IN THE YEAR OF THE LORD 966, DUKE MIESZKO WAS BAPTIZED.  1050 rocznica Chrztu Polski. The 1050th anniversary of the baptism of Poland.
1050 rocznica Chrztu Polski. The 1050th anniversary of the baptism of Poland
Albo Polska będzie katolicka, albo nie będzie jej wcale (Prymas Polski Stefan kardynał Wyszyński, Jasna Góra, 1957)
Either Poland will be Catholic either will cease to exist (the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, Luminous Mount, 1957)

A fresco depicting the scene of the baptism of Mieszko, by Matthias Rauchmüller of Wien (in Silesia known as Maciej Rauchmiller z Wiednia), 1677 – 1679,  The Silesian Piasts Mausoleum in Legnica at the St. John the Baptist Church in Legnica, Diocese of Legnica, Archdiocese of Wroclaw. Malowidło naścienne obrazujące scenę chrztu Mieszka, wykonane przez Macieja Rauchmillera z Wiednia w latach 1677 – 1679. Mauzoleum Piastów Śląskich w Legnicy przy kościele p.w. Św. Jana Chrzciciela, Diecezja Legnicka, Archidiecezja Wrocławska.  Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat

A fresco depicting the scene of the baptism of Mieszko, by Matthias Rauchmüller of Wien (in Silesia known as Maciej Rauchmiller z Wiednia), 1677 – 1679,  The Silesian Piasts Mausoleum in Legnica at the St. John the Baptist Church in Legnica, Diocese of Legnica, Archdiocese of Wroclaw.
Malowidło naścienne obrazujące scenę chrztu Mieszka, wykonane przez Macieja Rauchmillera z Wiednia w latach 1677 – 1679. Mauzoleum Piastów Śląskich w Legnicy przy kościele p.w. Św. Jana Chrzciciela, Diecezja Legnicka, Archidiecezja Wrocławska.

COECUS ERAS. COECI REX, MIECESLAE, POLONI VISUM ANIMA RECIPIS. SARMATA, REX OCULIS
YOU WERE BLIND. FOR THE BLIND POLISH KING MIECZYSLAW, VISION OF LIFE YOU HAVE RECEIVED.  SARMATA, KING OF THE EYES.

Miejsce, w którym odbył się Chrzest Polski według wrocławskiej legendy:

Och, Wrocławiu, Europejska Stolico Kultury 2016 (ESK), jak cudownym jesteś miastem!
Oh! Wroclaw, Poland, European Capital of Culture 2016, ESK,  what a wonderful city you are!



Podniosłe i wzruszające obchody dnia Flagi  Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej 2. maja 2016
z udziałem Pana Prezydenta

Polska - kraj wolnych ludzi. Poland: Land of the Free
Polska - kraj wolnych ludzi.
Poland: Land of the Free.
Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła!
 Poland Is Not Yet Lost!

Gaude Mater Polonia O ciesz się, Matko-Polsko Rejoice, oh Mother Poland

Gaude, mater Polonia,O ciesz się, Matko-Polsko, w sławneRejoice, oh Mother Poland
prole fæcunda nobili.Potomstwo płodna! Króla królówRich in noble offspring,
Summi Regis magnaliaI najwyższego Pana wielkośćTo the Highest King render
laude frequenta vigili.Uwielbiaj chwałą przynależną.Worship with incessant praise.



Cuius benigna gratiaAlbowiem z Jego łaskawościFor by His benign grace
Stanislai PontificisBiskupa Stanisława mękiBishop Stanislaw's torments,
passionis insigniaNiezmierne, jakie on wycierpiał,so great, which he had suffered
signis fulgent mirificis.Jaśnieją cudownymi znaki.Shine with marvelous signs.



Hic certans pro iustitia,Potykał się za sprawiedliwość,Here contending for justice,
Regis non-cedit furiæ:Przed gniewem króla nie ustąpił:He did not yield before the anger of the king:
Stat pro plebis iniuriaI staje żołnierz ChrystusowyAnd stands the soldier of Christ,
Christi miles in acie.Za krzywdę ludu sam do walki.Alone to fight for the injury of the people.



Tyranni truculentiam,Ponieważ stale wypominałBecause he constantly reminded
Qui dum constanter arguit,On okrucieństwo tyranowi,The tyrant of his brutality,
Martyrii victoriamKoronę zdobył męczennika,He gained the crown of a martyr,
Membratim cæsus meruit.Padł posiekany na kawałki.And fell quartered into pieces.



Novum pandit miraculumNiebiosa nowy cud zdziałały,The Heavens wrought a new miracle,
Splendor in sancto ceritus,Bo mocą swą Niebieski LekarzFor the Celestial Physician by His power
Redintegrat corpusculumPoćwiartowane jego ciałoThe martyr's quartered body
Sparsum cælestis medicus.Przedziwne znowu w jedno złączył.Once more miraculously joined into whole.



Sic Stanislaus pontifexTak to Stanisław biskup przeszedłThus did bishop Stanislaus enter
Transit ad caeli curiam,W przybytki Króla niebieskiego,Into the Court of the Celestial King,
Ut apud Deum opifexAby u Boga StworzycielaThat he may at God, the Creator's, side
Nobis imploret veniam.Nam wyjednać przebaczenie.Beg forgiveness for us.



Poscentes eius merita,Gdy kto dla zasług jego prosi,When whosoever by his merits pleads,
Salutis dona referunt:Wnet otrzymuje zbawcze dary:Soon receives the saving gifts:
Morte præventi subitaCi, co pomarli nagłą śmiercią,Those who died a sudden death,
Ad vitae potum redeunt.Do życia znowu powracają.To life return once more.



Cuius ad tactum anuliChoroby wszelkie pod dotknięciemAll diseases at the touch
Morbi fugantur turgidi:Pierścienia jego uciekają:Of his ring flee:
Ad locum sancti tumuliPrzy jego świętym grobie zdrowieBy his holy grace health
Multi curantur languidi.Niemocnych wielu odzyskuje.Is gained by the feeble.



Surdis auditus redditur,Słuch głuchym bywa przywrócony,Hearing returns to the mute,
Claudis gressus officum,A chromy kroki stawia raźno,While the lame boldly takes steps,
Mutorum lingua solviturNiemowom język się rozwiązał,The tongues of the mutes are untied,
Et fugatur daemonium.W popłochu szatan precz ucieka.Satan flees in haste far away.



Ergo, felix Cracovia,A przeto szczęsny ty, Krakowie,Thus, you, o happy Cracow,
Sacro dotata corporeUposażony świętym ciałem,Armed with saintly body,
Deum, qui fecit omnia,Błogosław po wsze czasy Boga,Bless for all eternity God,
Benedic omni tempore.Który z niczego wszystko stworzył.Who wrought all from naught.



Sit Trinitati gloria,Niech Trójcy Przenajświętszej zabrzmiMay to Most Holy Trinity sound
Laus, honor, iubilatio:Cześć, chwała, sława, uwielbienie,Praise, glory, celebration, adoration,
De Martyris victoriaA nam tryumfy męczennikaAnd let the triumphs of the martyr
Sit nobis exsultatio.Niech wyjednają radość wieczną.Gain for us eternal bliss.
AmenAmenAmen

Pan Prezydent Andrzej Duda 2. maja 2016 r. na dziedzińcu Belwederu
odniósł się do następującego fragmentu dzieła naszego noblisty:

Henryk Sienkiewicz ' Krzyżacy'

(...)
"A wtem stało się coś jeszcze okropniejszego.

Oto jeden leżący na ziemi Krzyżak rozpruł nożem brzuch konia, na którym siedział Marcin z Wrocimowic trzymający wie1ką, świętą dla wszystkich wojsk chorągiew krakowską z orłem w koronie. Rumak i jeździec zwalili się nagle, a wraz z nimi zachwiała się i padła chorągiew.

W jednej chwili setki żelaznych ramion wyciągnęło się po nią, a ze wszystkich piersi niemieckich wyrwał się ryk radości. Zdało im się, że to koniec, że strach i popłoch ogarną teraz Polaków, że przychodzi czas klęski, mordu i rzezi, że już uciekających tylko przyjdzie im ścigać i wycinać.

Ale oto właśnie czekał ich straszny i krwawy zawód.

Krzyknęły wprawdzie z rozpaczą jak jeden mąż wojska polskie na widok upadającej chorągwi, lecz w tym krzyku i w tej rozpaczy był nie strach, ale wściekłość. Rzekłbyś, żywy ogień spadł na pancerze. Rzucili się jak lwy rozżarte ku miejscu najstraszniejsi mężowie z obu armii i rzekłbyś, burza rozpętała się koło chorągwi. Ludzie i konie zbili się w jeden wir potworny, a w tym wirze śmigały ramiona, szczękały miecze, warczały topory, zgrzytała stal o żelazo, łomot, jęki, dziki wrzask wyrzynanych mężów zlały się w jeden przeokropny głos, taki, jakby potępieńcy odezwali się nagle z głębi piekła. Wstała kurzawa, a z niej wypadły tylko oślepłe z przerażenia konie bez jeźdźców, z krwawymi oczyma i rozwianą dziko grzywą.

Lecz trwało to krótko. Ni jeden Niemiec nie wyszedł żywy z tej burzy i po chwili powiała znów nad polskimi zastępami odbita chorągiew. Wiatr poruszył ją, rozwinął i rozkwitła wspaniale jak olbrzymi kwiat, jako znak nadziei i jako znak gniewu Bożego dla Niemców, a zwycięstwa dla polskich rycerzy.

Całe wojsko powitało ją okrzykiem tryumfu i uderzyło z taką zapamiętałością w Niemców, jakby każdej chorągwi przybyło w dwójnasób sił i żołnierzy.

A Niemcy, bici bez miłosierdzia, bez wytchnienia, bez takiej nawet przerwy, jakiej piersiom trzeba dla złapania oddechu, parci ze wszystkich stron, naciskani, rażeni nieubłaganie ciosami mieczów, siekier, toporów, maczug, poczęli znów chwiać się i ustępować. Tu i owdzie ozwały się głosy o litość. Tu i owdzie wypadał ze skrzętu jakiś zagraniczny rycerz z twarzą zbielałą ze strachu i zdumienia i uciekał w zapamiętaniu, gdzie go niósł nie mniej przerażony rumak.
(...)

I nie tylko przeniewierczy Zakon krzyżacki leżał oto pokotem u stóp króla, ale cała potęga niemiecka zalewająca dotychczas jak fala nieszczęsne krainy słowiańskie rozbiła się w tym dniu odkupienia o piersi polskie."
(...)




"When John Paul II kissed the ground at the Warsaw airport on June 2, 1979, he began the process by which communism in Poland—and ultimately everywhere—would come to an end."

John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War: A New History (Penguin Press in US, Allen Lane in UK)
Quoted by George Weigel: June 1979—The Nine Days of John Paul II


What is next?

God has appeared – as a child. It is in this guise that he pits himself against all violence and brings a message that is peace. At this hour, when the world is continually threatened by violence in so many places and in so many different ways, when over and over again there are oppressors’ rods and bloodstained cloaks, we cry out to the Lord: O mighty God, you have appeared as a child and you have revealed yourself to us as the One who loves us, the One through whom love will triumph. And you have shown us that we must be peacemakers with you. We love your childish estate, your powerlessness, but we suffer from the continuing presence of violence in the world, and so  we also ask you: manifest your power, O God. In this time of ours, in this world of ours, cause the oppressors’ rods, the cloaks rolled in blood and the footgear of battle to be burned, so that your peace may triumph in this world of ours.

MIDNIGHT MASS
SOLEMNITY OF THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD
HOMILY OF HIS HOLINESS BENEDICT XVI
Saint Peter's Basilica
24 December 2011
full text

other languages:

montre Ta puissance, ô Dieu      Zeige deine Macht, o Gott     dimostra la Tua potenza, o Dio
Boże, okaż Swoją moc      Demonstrai a vossa força, ó Deus      Demuestra tu poder, ¡oh Dios!


John Paul II Homeland: Wadowice, Krakow, Andrychow, Kety, Bulowice, Bielsko-Biala, Zywiec

John Paul II Homeland: Wadowice, Krakow, Andrychow, Kety, Bulowice, Bielsko-Biala, Zywiec

The long lasting shadow of the German death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau built in Germany occupied Poland in the town of Oświęcim and the village of Brzezinka by the Germans on the land of expelled Poles, and with bricks of their demolished houses.

The joy of love * Radość miłości. The misery of hatred ][ Cierpienie nienawiści. Miss Evelina, age 20, of Brzezinka, Poland, lives in the vicinity of the German death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. Panna Ewelina, lat 20, z Brzezinki, mieszka w pobliżu niemieckiego obozu zagłady Auschwitz-Birkenau. Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat
The joy of love * Radość miłości. The misery of hatred ][ Cierpienie nienawiści. Miss Evelina, age 20, of Brzezinka, Poland, lives in the vicinity of the German death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. Panna Ewelina, lat 20, z Brzezinki, mieszka w pobliżu niemieckiego obozu zagłady Auschwitz-Birkenau
The joy of love, the misery of hatred * Radość miłości, cierpienie nienawiści

 Pan Józef Kozioł, przewodniczący Stowarzyszenia Poszkodowanych przez III Rzeszę na Rzecz budowy obozów KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, wypowiedź z dnia 10. kwietnia 2016 r.: Niemcy wypędzili Polaków, z cegieł ich domów zbudowali Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp the Germans built with bricks of houses of expelled Poles.
Pan Józef Kozioł, przewodniczący Stowarzyszenia Poszkodowanych przez III Rzeszę na Rzecz budowy obozów KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, wypowiedź z dnia 10. kwietnia 2016 r.: 
Niemcy wypędzili Polaków, z cegieł ich domów zbudowali Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp the Germans built with bricks of houses of expelled Poles. 
on youtube


Jan Stanisławski: Malwy.
  Jan Stanisławski: Malwy. Przed 1900. Olej, deska. 29 x 22 cm.  Własność prywatna.


Neal Ascherson was born in Edinburgh in 1932 and educated at Cambridge.

He is a journalist of international repute (...) He first went to Poland as a reporter on the Manchester Guardian in 1957, and has returned almost every year since; he covered the Solidarity  period and the imposition of martial law for the Observer in 1980-81.

In 1988 Neal Asherson writes: 
No other nation suffered so much in this century, and gained so little. 

THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.
New York 1988

Suppression of Religious Freedom in Poland

Aid to the Church in Need (ACN):
 Religious Freedom in the World - Report 2014
Poland, Pologne, Polonia (Español), Polonia (Italiano)Polen, Polónia


Until the presidential and parliamentary elections of the year 2015:

Polska w Kajdanach - Poland in Chains.

Before for Your altars, we in supplication
Kneeling, implore You, free our land and nation.

Polska w Kajdanach - Poland in Chains.Before for Your altars, we in supplication Kneeling, implore You, free our land and nation.

Rich with symbols of Poland's struggles for independence after partition.
The woman in mourning symbolizing Poland
has the years of Poland's uprisings against foreign rule--1794, 1830, 1863
-- emblazoned on her veil; they also appear on the flag's ribbons.
On the arms of the cross are the years of Poland's acceptance of Christianity
and its adoption of the May 3rd Constitution,
Europe's first modern constituion and only the world's second,  after the United States.
The May 3rd Constitution also appears as a light in the clouds.


NOVEMBER 2014
WE, THE POLISH NATION
AT HOME AND ABROAD
KEEP STRUGGLING
FOR OUR FREEDOM AND YOURS

European Parliament
Minutes
Monday, 24 November 2014 - Strasbourg

Request by the ECR Group to have included as the last item on the agenda for Wednesday, with the tabling of motions for resolutions, a Commission statement on irregularities in the local elections in Poland, jeopardising democracy there.

The following spoke:
Zdzisław Krasnodębski , on behalf of the
European Conservatives and Reformists Group, (71/751, ca 10% of all MEPs, representing 50 millions of all Europeans, among them 17 MEPs of Law and Justice Party which occupies  29% seats in Polish Parliament representing ca 13 millions of Polish electorate ) to move the request, Ryszard Antoni Legutko , to support it, and Jan Olbrycht , to oppose it.
 


Parlament Europejski
Protokół
Poniedziałek, 24 listopada 2014 r. - Strasburg

Wniosek grupy ECR o wpisanie, wraz ze złożeniem projektów rezolucji, jako ostatni punkt porządku obrad w środę oświadczenia Komisji na temat nieprawidłowości podczas wyborów samorządowych w Polsce, zagrażających demokracji w tym kraju.

Głos zabrali: Zdzisław Krasnodębski w imieniu grupy ECR w celu uzasadnienia wniosku, Ryszard Antoni Legutko w celu jego poparcia oraz Jan Olbrycht w celu wyrażenia sprzeciwu.

Parlament odrzucił wniosek


EU Parliament Public hearing, December 11, 2014
Irregularities in local elections in Poland as a threat to democracy
11-12-2014, 09:30 - 13:00




Jan Styka "Polonia, Konstytucja 3 Maja 1791" monumentalna narodowa alegoria z roku 1891. Dzieło najwyższej próby ukrywane w piwnicach Muzeum Narodowego we Wrocławiu, nigdy tam nie pokazane publiczności krajowej i zagranicznej. Polska w białej szacie bez winy zniewolona, przykuta do skały, ale Matka Boska Królowa Polski nad nami czuwa, nie opuści nas. Pod krzyżem gromadzą się tłumy wszystkich stanów, szlachta, chłopi i mieszczanie składają hołd generałowi Tadeuszowi Kościuszce wiodącemu lud zbrojny w kosy do walki o wolność. Na kolanach jasnogórski paulin ksiądz Augustyn Kordecki i warszawski szewc Jan Kiliński. Szable unoszą wysoko generał Kazimierz Pułaski książę Józef Poniatowski, generał Henryk Dąbrowski. Natchniony Adam Mickiewicz na czele twórców i uczonych...
Jan Styka "Polonia, Konstytucja 3 Maja 1791"


Mary Sokolowska, age 17, was not afraid to ask the Prime Minister Donald Tusk, looking him in the eye, why he was a traitor to Poland.
An interview, May 23, 2014  (in Polish)
Mary Sokolowska, age 17, was not afraid to ask the Prime Minister Donald Tusk, looking him in the eye, why he was a traitor to Poland. An interview, May 23, 2014  (in Polish) Marysia Sokołowska z Gorzowa, lat 17. Nie bała się zapytać premiera Tuska, patrząc mu w oczy, dlaczego jest zdrajcą Polski. Wywiad z Marysią Sokołowską z Gorzowa Wlkp. Rafał Zapadka: Pytania spoza kadru (18) do Marysi Sokołowskiej NIECHAJ ŚWIAT ZNA, JAKIE CÓRKI POLSKA MA! DAWNIEJ "NIECHAJ POLSKA ZNA, JAKICH SYNÓW MA" Licealistka z I klasy Maria  Sokołowska - Pogromczyni Tuska na Facebooku, lajkujcie póki to nie zabronione

ludzie czystych serc rozpalą płomień wolności 
the people of pure hearts will kindle the flame of freedom

Marysia Sokołowska, lat 17, uosabia zwycięstwo młodego ducha nad szumowiną nienawiści, wulgarności i obsceniczności.

Ten duch uwalnia nas spod władzy podłych myśli, brudnych słów, korupcyjnych działań i zdradzieckich czynów. 

Ten duch pochodzi z natchnienia Ducha Świętego


Marysia Sokołowska, lat 17, śpiewa Ave Maria podczas Mszy Świętej przed kościołem p.w. Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny na Górze Ślęży Mary Sokolowska, age 17, singing Ave Maria during the Holy Mass in front of The Church of the Visitation of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary on the Sleza Mountain ludzie czystych serc rozpalą płomień wolności the people of pure hearts will kindle the flame of freedom All rights reserved halat.comMary Sokołowska,
age 17,
 embodies victory of young
spirit over  scum of hatred, vulgarity and obscenity.

The spirit frees us from the power of vile thoughts, filthy words, corrupt activities, treasonous deeds.

This spirit comes from the inspiration of the Holy Spirit
Marysia Sokołowska, lat 17, śpiewa Ave Maria podczas Mszy Świętej przed kościołem p.w. Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny na Górze Ślęży
Mary Sokolowska, age 17, singing Ave Maria during the Holy Mass in front of The Church of the Visitation of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary on the Sleza Mountain
'Moralne zwycięstwo młodych objawia moc Ducha Świętego przyrzeczoną i udzieloną uczniom przez Jezusa oraz skłania młodych chrześcijan dziś, podobnie jak w pierwszym wieku, do czynnego uczestnictwa w życiu Kościoła
Young people's moral victory is a manifestation of the power of the Holy Spirit, which Jesus promised to his disciples. It urges the young Christians of today, like those in the first century, to participate actively in the life of the Church
Św. Jan Paweł II,  Audiencja Generalna, 31. sierpnia 1994       St. John Paul II, General Audience, August 31, 1994.

Miss Purity of Poland, Mary Sokolowska, age 17, embodies victory of young spirit over scum of hatred, scum of raunch.
Miss Purity of Poland, Mary Sokolowska, age 17, answering the 1998 call of St Pope John Paul II to the young people "Take up your Cross!", June 1st, 2014, Wroclaw, Poland All rights reserved halat.com
Miss Purity of Poland, Mary Sokolowska, age 17, answering the 1998 call of St Pope John Paul II to the young people "Take up your Cross!", June 1st, 2014, Wroclaw, Poland
MARCH OF VIRGINS UP TO THE MOUNT SLEZA  MARSZ DZIEWIC NA GÓRĘ ŚLĘŻĘ

Dlaczego polscy wyborcy 2015 wyrzucili na śmietnik popieraną przez Merkel partię Tuska, u władzy od 2007 roku?
Why did 2015 Polish voters dump the Merkel backed Tusk's party, in power since 2007?
Ponieważ Polska jest krajem ludzi wolnych, którzy są przeciwko niewoli kolonialnego feudalizmu.
Because Poland is the land of the free who are against the slavery of colonial feudalism.

Dlaczego polscy wyborcy 2015 wyrzucili na śmietnik popieraną przez Merkel partię Tuska, u władzy od 2007 roku? Why did 2015 Polish voters dump the Merkel backed Tusk's party, in power since 2007? Ponieważ Polska jest krajem ludzi wolnych, którzy są przeciwko niewoli kolonialnego feudalizmu. Because Poland is the land of the free who are against the slavery of colonial feudalism.
UNDP Raport o Rozwoju Społecznym 2015, Tabl. 16: pozycja Polski / liczba państw sklasyfikowanych w danej konkurencji
UNDP Human Development Report 2015, Tabl. 16: rank of Poland / number of countries classified in the competition
Postrzeganie dokonań rządu Tuska [%], 100% państwo - lider światowy Perceptions of Tusk's government  [%], 100%: the world leader country
2013 Trust in national government: Poland ranked 120 among 137 countries, and scored 12% of the world leader country (100%)
Zaufanie do rządu  w roku 2013: Polska zajęła 120. miejsce wśród 137 państw i zdobyła 12% pozycji państwa, które zajęło 1. miejsce (100%)

Postrzeganie dokonań własnych Polaków [%], 100% kraj - lider światowy   The Poles' Perceptions of individual well-being  [%], 100%: the world leader nation
Wolność wyboru, kobiety, w roku 2014: Polska zajęła 33. miejsce wśród 157 państw i zdobyła 79% pozycji państwa, które zajęło 1. miejsce (100%)
Wolność wyboru, mężczyźni, w roku 2014: Polska zajęła 33. miejsce wśród 151 państw i zdobyła 78% pozycji państwa, które zajęło 1. miejsce (100%)
2014 Freedom of choice, female: Poland ranked 33 among 157 countries, and scored 79 % of the world leader country (100%)
2014 Freedom of choice, male: Poland ranked 33 among 151 countries, and scored 78 % of the world leader country (100%)

Przyszłość Polski: piękni, młodzi i bogaci we własną rodzimą kulturę. The future of Poland: beautiful, young and rich in their own native culture  Fine art photography by Zbigniew Halat
Przyszłość Polski: piękni, młodzi i bogaci we własną rodzimą kulturę. The future of Poland: beautiful, young and rich in their own native culture. Fine art photography by Zbigniew Halat


EPISTULA AD EMUM P.D. ADAMUM STEPHANUM TIT. S. MARIAE NOVAE S.R.E. PRESBYTERUM CARDINALEM SAPIEHA, ARCHIEPISCOPUM CRACOVIENSEM, ATQUE CETEROS EXCMOS PP. DD. POLONIAE ARCHIEPISCOPOS, EPISCOPOS LOCORUMQUE ORDINARIOS.
die I mensis Septembris anno MDCCCCXXXXIX

(Decennium dum expletur...)
full text
Poloniae fastos recensenti, qui gloriae et afflictationis granditate saepenumero praestant, torrentis modo fletus et sanguis varias inter vicissitudines rerum terram vestram madefacere videntur; hic vorago dolorum, illic culmina victoriae, religionis, litterarum, ingenuarum artium tantis irradiata fulgoribus. Unum tantum Polonia non novit: a Iesu Christo et ab Eius Ecclesia desciscere

 Apostolic Letter of Pope Pius XII to the bishops of Poland about the suffering of the Polish People
September 1, 1949
(Decennium dum expletur...)
Poland's history, full of glory and often misery, in the eyes of researchers seem to be similar to a river of tears and blood, spraying down your variation among various things: here an abyss of pain, where the peaks of victory, made radiant by great flashes of culture. One only Poland did not know: deviation from Christ the King and His Church. Your glory, your emblem of nobility is to act boldly, to suffer bravely, to trust unwaveringly, to achieve what is great.

Homilia
ks. bp. Antoniego Pacyfika Dydycza, ordynariusza drohiczyńskiego, wygłoszona podczas
ogólnopolskiej manifestacji w obronie Telewizji Trwam.
"...Polska minionych wieków, Polska dzisiaj i Polska jutra jest zawsze ta sama, zawsze z tymi samymi dążeniami, z takim samym programem. Ta jedność w czasie jest dla nas potrzebna. Polska zawsze była jedną i będzie taką. Taką wizję nakreślił Sługa Boży Papież Pius XII w Liście do nas z dnia 1 IX 1949 r. przesłanym na ręce biskupów polskich: "Dzieje Polski, pełne częstokroć chwały i nieszczęść, oczom badacza zdają się być podobne do potoku łez i krwi, zraszającego ziemię waszą pośród przeróżnej zmienności rzeczy: tu otchłań bólu, tam szczyty zwycięstwa, opromienione wspaniałymi blaskami kultury. Jednego tylko Polska nie znała: odstępstwa od Chrystusa Króla i Jego Kościoła. Chwałą Waszą, godłem szlachectwa Waszego jest działać odważnie, cierpieć mężnie, ufać niezachwianie, osiągać to, co wielkie.  pełny tekst homilii

Freedom of speech gravely endangered  by Poland's ruling party
In Warsaw on April 21, 2012 an estimated 120,000 people rallied to resist
discrimination against Catholic Television  TRWAM, created by father Tadeusz Rydzyk, C.SS.R
[official, mainstream controlled by hostile forces media reported that 20,000]
Nasz Dziennik (in Polish)

 Well over 2 Million Poles resist against the outrageous, politically motivated decision
protest defense of freedom of speech,  media freedom, democracy and sovereignty in Poland
 including Protests From:
 - The Highest Authority of the Catholic Church in Poland (The Polish Bishops' Conference)
 - The Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights
 - "Solidarity" Trade Union
 - Close to 50 Chief Editors of Major Polish Newspapers, Magazines and Independent Media
 - Hundreds of Non-Governmental Organizations,
Intellectuals, Journalists and other Civic Organizations
 - Tens of Thousands Around Poland Marched on the Streets in the Defense of Free Media in Poland.
more

“The media run by the Redemptorists is not controlled by the government. The government sees this as a threat to their liberal and secular agenda so they are trying to restrict Catholic media availability,” Henryk Bartul, a Polish freelance filmmaker, Ontario

 We are standing in front of a powerful Goliath
 Fr. Dr. Tadeusz Rydzyk – the director of Radio Maryja
more

For reliable and trustworthy informations and their interpretations,
please visit the certified Roman Catholic internet sites.
While googling them beware of those hostile to Roman Catholicism sites
 that incite religious hatred with mockery, calumny and scorn.
Do not get manipulated by cheaters’ lies and war mongers’ propaganda.

Polish Bishops Appeal
for Freedom to Broadcast
Government Seen as Discriminating Against Catholic TV
 ZENIT, January 30, 2012

Message of the Holy Father Benedict XVI to Radio Maryja
Messaggio del Papa Benedetto XVI in occasione del 20° anniversario di Radio Mari
a
 Botschaft des Heiligen Vaters Benedikt XVI an Radio Maryja
Mensaje del Santo Padre Benedicto XVI con ocasión del veinte aniversario de Radio María
Przesłanie Ojca Świętego Benedykta XVI na 20-tą Rocznicę powstania Radia Maryja
Послание Папы Римского Бенедикта XVI по случаю XX годовщины основания Радио Мария
here

Message of the Holy Father Benedict XVI Radio Maryja Family gathered at The Jasna Gora Monastery
July 8, 2012 ,
the Angelus Domini prayer on Sunday in Castel Gandolfo.
here

"I greet the participants of the Pilgrimage of Radio Maryja Family gathered at The Jasna Gora Monastery, who are praying for the Homeland, families and freedom of speech. I join spiritually in the events, I beg into good and peace for the World, Poland and each of you. I bless you from my heart."
Witam przybyłych do Castel Gandolfo Polaków. Pozdrawiam uczestników pielgrzymki Rodziny Radia Maryja zebranych na Jasnej Górze, którzy modlą się za Ojczyznę, za rodziny, o wolność słowa. Pozdrawiam też młodych stypendystów Fundacji „Dzieło Nowego Tysiąclecia”, zgromadzonych w Lublinie. Wraz z wyznawcami różnych religii, na terenie byłego Obozu Koncentracyjnego na Majdanku, będą się modlić dzisiaj wieczorem o pokój. Włączam się duchowo w te wydarzenia, upraszam dobro i pokój dla świata, Polski i każdego z was. Z serca wszystkim błogosławię.
Do il mio benvenuto ai Polacchi venuti a Castel Gandolfo. Saluto i partecipanti al pellegrinaggio della Famiglia di Radio Maria, radunati a Jasna Góra (Częstochowa), i quali pregano per la Patria, per le famiglie e per la libertà di espressione. Saluto anche i giovani borsisti della Fondazione “Opera del Nuovo Millennio” riuniti a Lublin: insieme con credenti di diverse religioni, nell’ex Campo di Concentramento di Majdanek, stasera eleveranno preghiere per la pace. Mi unisco spiritualmente a questi eventi, imploro il bene e la pace per il mondo, per la Polonia e per ognuno di voi. Vi benedico di cuore.
Ich heiße die Polen willkommen, die nach Castel Gandolfo gekommen sind. Ich grüße die Teilnehmer an der Familienwallfahrt von Radio Maria, die in Jasna Góra (Tschenstochau) versammelt sind und für das Vaterland, die Familien und die freie Meinungsäußerung beten. Ich grüße auch die jungen Stipendiaten der Stiftung »Werk des neuen Millenniums«, die in Lublin versammelt sind: zusammen mit Gläubigen verschiedener Religionen werden sie heute Abend im ehemaligen Konzentrationslager Majdanek für den Frieden beten. Ich schließe mich geistlich diesen Ereignissen an und bitte um das Wohl und den Frieden für die Welt, für Polen und für einen jeden von euch. Ich segne euch von Herzen.


Chrześcijanie jednoczą się w obronie przed kulturą śmierci
Христиане объединяются для защиты от культуры смерти
Christians unite in defense against the culture of death
His Holiness Kirill Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia and His Eminence Jozef Michalik,Archbishop Metropolitan of Przemysl, the President of the Polish Episcopal Conference since 2004. exchange signed copies of  the Joint Message to the Nations of Poland and Russia which has been adopted in Wroclaw, June 2012

His Holiness Kyrill I Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia and His Eminence Jozef Michalik, Archbishop Metropolitan of Przemysl, the President of the Polish Episcopal Conference on August 17, 2012 at the Warsaw Royal Place exchange signed copies of the Joint Message to the Nations of Poland and Russia which has been adopted in Wroclaw, June 2012, (WSPÓLNE PRZESŁANIE DO NARODÓW POLSKI I ROSJI, СОВМЕСТНОЕ ПОСЛАНИЕ К НАРОДАМ РОССИИ И ПОЛЬШИ, JOINT MESSAGE TO THE NATIONS OF POLAND AND RUSSIA: full texts here)
ORĘDZIE BISKUPÓW POLSKICH DO ICH NIEMIECKICH BRACI W CHRYSTUSOWYM URZĘDZIE PASTERSKIM z 18. listopada 1965,  HIRTENBRIEF DER POLNISCHEN BISCHÖFE AN IHRE DEUTSCHEN AMTSBRÜDER  vom 18. November 1965, PASTORAL LETTER OF THE POLISH BISHOPS TO THEIR GERMAN BROTHERS IN CHRIST of 18 November 1965:  full texts here





Poland is a very strange country, in which I always feel at home. So said the French director Claude Lanzmann, who spent a long time filming in the remote Polish countryside. Many foreigners agree with him, as they leave a land which - in spite of their affection for it - they find bizarre, even exotic, in its past and present. But what exactly is this 'strangeness'?. Too much emphasis on the oddity of Poland becomes destructive, hiding a nation under a crust of caricature. And in the end it is very misleading. In important ways, Poland - one of the older European states - has been more 'normal' than its younger neighbours. This is specially true of its history . For hundreds of years, Poland was an open, tolerant country with many races and religions. The power of the kings was limited by charters and agreements, and great matters were frequently decided by debates and votes. But on either side of it there slowly grew up the more primitive states of Prussia (a military kingdom demanding rigid obedience from its subjects) and Russia, with its tradition of hopeless servility before God-given tyrants. Between these neighbours an enlightened and progressive Poland, in many ways having more in common with western Europe, tried but eventually failed to survive.The modern Polish novelist Kazimierz Brandys once divided the world into countries with corpses under the floorboards - including Germany and Russia - 'and those like France and Poland which have no corpses to hide'. When a visitor commented that Poland was an abnormal country, he retorted: 'It is a perfectly normal country between two abnormal ones'. Brandys points out that for three hundred years, between the Renaissance and the Partitions which abolished Polish independence, Poland functioned without great upheavals, stable at a time when Europe was staggered by peasant revolts, the Inquisition, dynastic wars, religious wars, the Hundred Years War, the Thirty Years War.

Who knows, perhaps it was Europe that was sick, all Europe with the exception of Poland?

THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.,
New York 1988

 
 
The Poles are always eager to defend Christianity

The Poles are always eager to defend Christianity. Saint Peter's sword makes Poland bulwark of Christianity
Saint Peter's sword makes Poland bulwark of Christianity

The sword arrived in Poznań in 968 AD as a gift from John XIII for Duke Mieszko I, and resides there more than 1,000 years now
Beato Angelico: Arresto di Gesù (bacio di Giuda, il taglio il lobo dell'orecchio del soldato Malco da parte di Simon Pietro), 1437-1446, Museo di San Marco, Firenze.The Sword of Saint Peter (Polish: Miecz świętego Piotra) was used by Simon Peter the Apostle in an attempt to prevent the arrest of Jesus. Peter cut off the earlobe of Malchus,  the servant of the Jewish High Priest, Caiaphas, at the time of Jesus' arrest in Gethsemane. Luke the Apostle, who himself was a medical doctor by profession, like no other Evangelist, recorded that Jesus touched the Malchus’ ear and healed him. Under extremely dramatic circumstances, Our Lord showed his mercy to Malchus and took care of his comparably minor injury, facing Himself the suffering of the Cross. Simon Peter was heroic but hotheaded defender of Our Saviour, typically human in his emotions, but finally proved to be as stable as the rock upon which Jesus built his church:  "Simon Peter knew great fear and doubt. He let his passions rule him instead of faith in God. (...) Peter was a fiercely loyal man.  Once he was filled with the Holy Spirit after Pentecost, Peter was a fearless missionary for Christ". (Jack Zavada: "Peter the Apostle - Member of Jesus' Inner Circle, Profile of Simon Peter the Apostle, Forgiven After Denying Christ)
Beato Angelico: Arresto di Gesù (bacio di Giuda, il taglio il lobo dell'orecchio del soldato Malco da parte di Simon Pietro), 1437-1446, Museo di San Marco, Firenze
The Sword of Saint Peter (Polish: Miecz świętego Piotra) was used by Simon Peter the Apostle in an attempt to prevent the arrest of Jesus. Peter cut off the earlobe of Malchus,  the servant of the Jewish High Priest, Caiaphas, at the time of Jesus' arrest in Gethsemane. Luke the Apostle, who himself was a medical doctor by profession, like no other Evangelist, recorded that Jesus touched the Malchus’ ear and healed him. Under extremely dramatic circumstances, Our Lord showed his mercy to Malchus and took care of his comparably minor injury, facing Himself the suffering of the Cross. Simon Peter was heroic but hotheaded defender of Our Saviour, typically human in his emotions, but finally proved to be as stable as the rock upon which Jesus built his church:  "Simon Peter knew great fear and doubt. He let his passions rule him instead of faith in God. (...) Peter was a fiercely loyal man.  Once he was filled with the Holy Spirit after Pentecost, Peter was a fearless missionary for Christ". (Jack Zavada: "Peter the Apostle - Member of Jesus' Inner Circle, Profile of Simon Peter the Apostle, Forgiven After Denying Christ)

New Living Translation (NLT)Słowo Życia (SZ-PL)
Luke 22
Jesus Is Betrayed and Arrested
47 But even as Jesus said this, a crowd approached, led by Judas, one of the twelve disciples. Judas walked over to Jesus to greet him with a kiss. 48 But Jesus said, “Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”
49 When the other disciples saw what was about to happen, they exclaimed, “Lord, should we fight? We brought the swords!” 50 And one of them struck at the high priest’s slave, slashing off his right ear.
51 But Jesus said, “No more of this.” And he touched the man’s ear and healed him.
52 Then Jesus spoke to the leading priests, the captains of the Temple guard, and the elders who had come for him. “Am I some dangerous revolutionary,” he asked, “that you come with swords and clubs to arrest me? 53 Why didn’t you arrest me in the Temple? I was there every day. But this is your moment, the time when the power of darkness reigns.”
Ewangelia według św. Łukasza 22
Aresztowanie Jezusa
47 Ledwie skończył mówić, nadeszła zgraja ludzi prowadzona przez Judasza, jednego z Dwunastu. Ten zbliżył się do Jezusa i przywitał Go pocałunkiem. 48 – Judaszu, pocałunkiem zdradzasz Mnie, Syna Człowieczego? – zapytał Jezus. 49 Widząc, na co się zanosi, pozostali uczniowie krzyknęli: – Mistrzu, czy mamy użyć miecza? 50 W tej samej chwili jeden z nich zamachnął się mieczem i odciął prawe ucho słudze najwyższego kapłana. 51 – Nie stawiajcie im oporu! – odpowiedział Jezus, po czym dotknął rany i uleczył ucho. 52 Następnie zwrócił się do najwyższych kapłanów, dowódców straży świątynnej oraz starszych, którzy przyszli na to miejsce: – Czy jestem jakimś groźnym przestępcą, że przyszliście po Mnie aż tak uzbrojeni?  53 Dlaczego nie zatrzymaliście Mnie w świątyni? Przecież codziennie byłem tam wśród was! Teraz jednak nadszedł wasz czas – czas władcy ciemności
John 18:10-11
10 Then Simon Peter drew a sword and slashed off the right ear of Malchus, the high priest’s slave. 11 But Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword back into its sheath. Shall I not drink from the cup of suffering the Father has given me?”
Ewangelia według św. Jana 18:10-11
10 Wtedy Szymon Piotr wyjął miecz, zamachnął się i odciął prawe ucho słudze najwyższego kapłana, Malchusowi. 11 – Schowaj miecz – rzekł do niego Jezus. – Czyż nie mam pić z kielicha, który podaje Mi Ojciec?


Since November 5, 1444 Poland is known as Antemurale Christianitatis
although Polish knights defended genuine Christianity against invading Germans much earlier
(Battle of Cedynia or Zehden, an army of Mieszko I, the Baptizer of Poland, defeated forces of Hodo or Odo I on 24 June 972),
the 1410  Grunwald (Tannenberg) battle victory over the Teutonic Order proved to be decisive for several centuries and let Poland bloom


Poland the Knight among Nations Jan Styka, Museum of Silesian Piasts, Brzeg (Brieg), Silesia, Poland
Jan Styka Battle of Grunwald, detail, Museum of Silesian Piasts, Brzeg (Brieg), Silesia, Poland


Luis E. Van Norman, Poland: 'The Knight Among Nations', 1907, 'Polska – rycerz wśród narodów', z przedmową Heleny Modrzejewskiej, 1908
Luis E. Van Norman, Poland: 'The Knight Among Nations', 1907, 'Polska – rycerz wśród narodów', z przedmową Heleny Modrzejewskiej, 1908

POLAND : THE KNIGHT AMONG NATIONS
I POLAND'S ROLE IN HISTORY
full text here

"In an age which is, beyond all else, materialistic, what can better entitle a people to distinction and homage than the facts that it worships the ideal, that its heroes are personifications of aspiration, and that its very faults are, in large measure, directly traceable to "visionary patriotism " and " artistic preoccupation "?It is the glory of the Polish people to hold aloft the torch of idealism in a materialistic age. While many a western nation is going to war over commerce; while the ears of the chancelleries are tuned to the tones of the stock-ticker, and the ambitions of the day run to the men who can amass the most gigantic fortunes, the Poles lavish all their national affections on a living word-master. In the national Sienkiewicz jubilee a couple of years ago they did for a mere creator of literature what the rest of the world is wont to reserve for "Napoleons of finance " ; for men who have defeated others with great slaughter, and for colossuses who have moulded empires out of the patrimony of other peoples. For four centuries Poland was the bulwark of Europe against the floods of barbarism from the East. That mysterious, fecund East, from which countless human hives have swarmed out over Europe, gave out these swarms in myriad, pitiless numbers, at frequent intervals from the 13th to the 17th century. Impelled by some unexplainable ethnic force, the barbarian tribes moved ever westward, until, on the banks of the Dwina, the Dniester, and the Vistula, they met the swords of the Poles. But for Polish valour, Western civilisation would have been blighted ; Christianity itself, perhaps, engulfed. Poland was the sentinel who kept watch on the eastern gate of Europe, while Latin civilisation, in the person of France, flowered and taught the world. " While my own dear France was the missionary of civilisation," said Victor Hugo, " Poland was its knight." The eastern frontier of the Commonwealth was, by its low, level, natural formation, particularly open to attack. Poland was essentially a land of plains, which, for centuries, were swept and desolated by vast, contending armies. Time and again the Mongols completely overran the Commonwealth. Twice these fierce nomads rolled in great waves over the entire country, and were checked only on the banks of the Vistula, beneath the very walls of Cracow.For this defence of Europe against the barbarism of the non-Christian East, Poland asked no contributions of troops, or money. She asked no thanks. The treatment she has actually received from Europe is one of the crimes of the ages.Poland upheld the Christian faith when most of the rest of Europe was sunk in petty wars and struggles for greed. She received the poor Jew when all the rest of the Christian world would have none of him. Her bosom was a refuge for the Hussites and emigrants of the Thirty Years' War. She has always accepted this as her role —to be the champion of the West against the East ; of culture against barbarism. With a religion and civilisation based on those of Rome, and a language strongly modified by Latin influences, she has been the outpost of Occidentalism against even the great mass of the Slav race itself, which is cast in a Byzantine mould.It must be admitted that this attitude was more the result of an impulsive generosity than the development of a conscious, logical will. It was a great virtue, but a virtue, alas, singularly favoured by the recklessness and love of glory characteristic of the national spirit. This was admitted in an eloquent memorial published by the Poles of this country at the time of the convocation of the first Hague Peace Conference. This document, however, rightly gloried in the "improvident generosity" of Poland. It said: "History proves that the Polish people were not believers in force or the use of destructive weapons to vindicate their rights. To the last moment of their political existence they looked with contempt upon all destructive weapons. They prized individual courage much higher. They attacked the enemy with sword in hand, abhorring those who hid in trenches under the protection of batteries. When the other nations of Europe relied mainly upon powerful artilleries for the success of their troops, Poland, too proud, and placing too high the honour of the military calling, looked with disdain upon those who were willing to kill and dared not expose themselves. In view of the greed of the neighbouring powers, this characteristic trait of our nation did not redound to our advantage. Nevertheless it existed, and was one of the brightest features of our history."Poland is, or rather was, a large and powerful nation with a territory greater than that of modern Germany, and for nearly a century her voice was authoritative in the councils of the continent Take down the map of Europe. Draw a line from Riga, on the Baltic Sea, to Dresden in Saxony. Draw another line from Dresden to the mouth of the Dniester River, on the Black Sea; another from the mouth of the Dniester to Smolensk, Russia, and a fourth from Smolensk back to Riga. You have enclosed the Commonwealth of Poland at its greatest extent—the country of Sienkiewicz.Before the partitions Posen, West Prussia, Galicia, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Kiev were Polish. In still earlier times, Bessarabia, Moldavia, Silesia, and Livonia belonged to the Polish crown. Even as late as 1772 Danzig (Gdansk) was a Polish seaport, and Kamieniec (near the modern Kishinev) the Polish defence against the Turks, while to the north and west Poland's frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga and to within the shadow of the Kremlin at Moscow. To-day Poland is a portion of three great European nations, Russia, Austria, arid Germany. She has long ceased to have a separate political existence, but her sons remain a distinct, individual and resistant people. 
No doubt the ultimate aim of Polish activity everywhere is the re-establishment of Poland as a national and political entity. The dream of every Polish patriot is to see a Poland arise, on the ashes of the past, stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea—a country 750 miles in length and almost as much in width, comprising 400,000 square miles, and with a population of thirty-five millions. This would embrace the modern Polish provinces of Prussia, up to within a short distance of Berlin, with half the Prussian shore of the Baltic, Galicia in Austria, and the whole of that portion of Russia which at one time, some of it three hundred years ago, formed a part of Poland at her greatest extent."
 Po polsku tutaj: Biblioteka Dzieł Wyborowych. Polska jako Rycerz wśród narodów według Louis’a E. Van Normana, z przedmową Heleny Modrzejewskiej-Chłapowskiej. Część I, Warszawa, DRUK ED. NICZ i S-ka, NOWY-ŚWIAT 70.1908.


Deux nations entre toutes, depuis quatre siècles, ont joué dans la civilisation européenne un rôle désintéressé ; ces deux nations sont la France et la Pologne. Notez ceci, messieurs : la France dissipait les ténèbres, la Pologne repoussait la barbarie ; la France répandait les idées, la Pologne couvrait la frontière. Le peuple français a été le missionnaire de la civilisation en Europe ; le peuple polonais en a été le chevalier. Si le peuple polonais n'avait pas accompli son oeuvre, le peuple français n'aurait pas pu accomplir la sienne. À un certain jour, à une certaine heure, devant une invasion formidable de la barbarie, la Pologne a eu Sobieski comme la Grèce avait eu Léonidas. Victor Hugo: Actes et paroles (Les 4 volumes): Nouvelle édition augmentée By Hugo, Victor; Chambre des Pairs 1845 — 1848, I. La Pologne, 19 mars 1846.


"Suffering can mean defeat; it can be regarded as proof of the absence or impotence of God.
Polish spirituality, however, puts suffering in a different perspective."
in
THE SUFFERING, CHOSENNESS AND MISSION OF THE POLISH NATION

by Fr dr Waldemar Chrostowski a professor at the Academy of Catholic Theology in Warsaw, Poland.
full text here

"Sensitivity to transcendent values and detachment proper to the sacrum,
by individuals and whole social groups,
 best expresses their religiosity.
In the Polish society this religiosity was Christian for over a thousand years,

 but it also contains many elements of ancient Slavic culture. "
in
BASIC ELEMENTS OF POLISH RELIGIOSITY
by Fr prof. dr Czeslaw Bartnik  a professor at the Catholic University of Lublin
full text here


Magda Mielcarz as Lygia in "Quo Vadis"- a 2001 Polish film directed by Jerzy Kawalerowicz: Wonderful must thy Lygian country be where such maidens are born! Magda Mielcarz as Lygia, a Proto-Slavic Christian virgin
 Magda Mielcarz as Lygia, a Proto-Slavic Christian virgin
and Franciszek Pieczka as St. Peter
 in "Quo Vadis"- a 2001 Polish film directed by Jerzy Kawalerowicz
Wonderful must thy Lygian country be where such maidens are born!
"Quo Vadis"
A Narrative of the Time of Nero
by Henryk Sienkiewicz
winner of the 1905 Nobel Prize in Literature

 full text  audio

more great literature by Henryk Sienkiewicz:
The Knights of the Cross or, Krzyzacy
With Fire and Sword,  An Historical Novel of Poland and the Ukraine
The Deluge, An Historical Novel of Poland, and Sweden Vol. I. (of 2)
The Deluge, An Historical Novel of Poland, and Sweden Vol. II. (of 2)
Pan Michael, An Historical Novel of Poland, the Ukraine, and Turkey.
On the Field of Glory, An Historical Novel of the Time of King John Sobieski
In Desert and Wilderness 

Adam Mickiewicz
 
SKŁAD ZASAD

Mickiewicz proceeded independently to create the constitutional program of the Polish Legion. The manifesto "Skład zasad, czyli Symbol polityczny Polski" (A collection of principles of a Political symbol of Poland) was composed by Mickiewicz for the legion and in fifteen short articles advocated freedom of conscience, equality of all citizens, equality of women, enfranchisement of peasants, solidarity and brotherhood of Slavic nations.
  1. Duch chrześcijański, w wierze świętej katolickiej rzymskiej, jawiony czynami wolnymi.
  2. Słowo Boże, w Ewangelii zwiastowane, prawem narodów, ojczystym i społecznym.
  3. Kościół stróż Słowa.
  4. Ojczyzna pole życia Słowu Bożemu na ziemi.
  5. Duch polski Ewangelii sługa, ziemia polska ze swym społeczeństwem ciało. Polska zmartwychwstaje w ciele, w którym cierpiała i złożona została w grobie przed laty stu. Polska w osobie wolnej i niepodległej staje i Sławiańszczyźnie dłoń podaje.
  6. W Polszcze wolność wszelkiemu wyznawaniu Boga, wszelkiemu obrzędowi i zborowi.
  7. Słowo wolne, wolnie objawiane, z owoców przez prawo sądzone.
  8. Wszelki z narodu jest obywatelem, wszelki obywatel równy w prawie i przed urzędami.
  9. Wszelki urząd obieralny, wolnie dawany, wolnie brany.
  10. Izrealowi, bratu starszemu, uszanowanie, braterstwo pomoc na drodze ku jego dobru wiecznemu i doczesnemu. Równe we wszystkim prawo.
  11. Towarzyszce żywota, niewieście, braterstwo i obywatelstwo, równe we wszystkim prawo.
  12. Każdemu Sławianinowi, zamieszkałemu w Polszcze, braterstwo, obywatelstwo, równe we wszystkim prawo.
  13. Każdej rodzinie rola domowa pod opieką gminy. Każdej gminie rola gromadna pod opieką narodu.
  14. Wszelka własność szanowana i nietykalnie pod straż urzędowi narodowemu oddana.
  15. Pomoc polityczna, rodzinna, należna od Polski bratu Czechowi i ludom pobratymczym czeskim, bratu Rusowi i ludom ruskim. Pomoc chrześcijańska wszelkiemu narodowi jako bliźniemu.
Rzym, dnia 29 marca 1848 roku
 
 1. Christian spirit , the holy Roman Catholic faith , deeds jawiony free .
   2 The Word of God , the Gospel preached , the law of nations, home and social life.
   3 Church janitor words .
   4 Homeland field life of the Word of God on earth.
   5 Polish Spirit Gospel servant , Poland earth with his public body . Poland is resurrected in the flesh, in which she suffered and was made in the grave a hundred years ago . Poland in the person becomes free and independent and Sławiańszczyźnie hand gives 
   6 Estate in Poland freedom to every confession of God to every rite and the church .
   7 The word free, freely revealed , fruit judged by the law .
   8 Any of the nation is a citizen , every citizen equal before the law and the authorities.
   9 Any elective office , freely given , freely taken .
  10 Israel's , elder brother , respect , brotherhood, aid on the way to the good eternal and the temporal . Equal in all right .
  11 Companion of life, woman of the brotherhood and citizenship , equal in everything right .
  12 Each Sławianinowi , residing estate in Poland , brotherhood , citizenship, equal in everything right .
  13 Every family has the role of the home under the care of the municipality. Each municipality role cluster under the care of the nation.
  14 Any property respected and untouchable in the national guard urzgdowi given .
  15 Help the political , familial , due from the Polish brother Czech and people pobratymczym Czech, brother Rus and Rus peoples . Christian Aid every nation as a neighbor.

Google translated, not yet corrected

The Poles love horses

As a Pole, you must love horses. Partynice Racecourse, Wroclaw, Poland. Jako Polak musisz kochać konie. Fine art photography by Zbigniew Halat
As a Pole, you must love horses. Partynice Racecourse, Wroclaw Poland. Jako Polak musisz kochać konie. Fine art photography by Zbigniew Halat


Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Konno na jarmark.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Konno na jarmark. Ok. 1885. Olej na płótnie. 47 x 22 cm. Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wesoła jazda.  Ok. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 82 x 101,7 cm.  Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wesoła jazda.  Ok. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 82 x 101,7 cm.  Własność prywatna.

Juliusz Kossak: Wyjazd na polowanie z sokołem. 1868. Akwarela. 18,3 x 36,5 cm. Muzeum Górnośląskie, Bytom.
Juliusz Kossak: Wyjazd na polowanie z sokołem. 1868. Akwarela. 18,3 x 36,5 cm. Muzeum Górnośląskie, Bytom.  

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Szybka jazda. Ok. 1885. Olej na płótnie. 39,5 x 50,5 cm. Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Szybka jazda. Ok. 1885. Olej na płótnie. 39,5 x 50,5 cm. Własność prywatna.

Józef Brandt: Konie poniosły. Ok. 1885. Olej na płótnie. 65 x 110,5 cm. Własność prywatna.

Józef Brandt: Konie poniosły. Ok. 1885. Olej na płótnie. 65 x 110,5 cm. Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Na jarmark. Ok. 1890. Olej na płótnie. 72 x 118 cm. Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Na jarmark. Ok. 1890. Olej na płótnie. 72 x 118 cm. Własność prywatna.

Józef Brandt: Jarmark na Podolu. Ok. 1885. Olej na desce. 22,4 x 37,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Józef Brandt: Jarmark na Podolu. Ok. 1885. Olej na desce. 22,4 x 37,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Józef Brandt: Pogawędka z młodymi praczkami. 1882. Olej na płótnie. Własność prywatna.
Józef Brandt: Pogawędka z młodymi praczkami. 1882. Olej na płótnie. Własność prywatna.

Józef Brandt: Kozak i dziewczyna przy studni. 1875. Olej na płótnie. 51 x 99 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Kielcach.
Józef Brandt: Kozak i dziewczyna przy studni. 1875. Olej na płótnie. 51 x 99 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Kielcach.

Stanisław Masłowski: Dumka Jaremy. 1879. Olej na płótnie. 59 x 117 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Stanisław Masłowski: Dumka Jaremy. 1879. Olej na płótnie. 59 x 117 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Polski orszak weselny. Ok. 1888. Olej na płótnie. 48 x 62 cm. Własność prywatna.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Polski orszak weselny. Ok. 1888. Olej na płótnie. 48 x 62 cm. Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wesele krakowskie. 1876-78. Olej na płótnie. Własność prywatna.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wesele krakowskie. 1876-78. Olej na płótnie. Własność prywatna.

January Suchodolski: Wesele. Olej na płótnie. 30,5 x 43 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
January Suchodolski: Wesele. Olej na płótnie. 30,5 x 43 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Wojciech Kossak: Wesele krakowskie ("Cracovian Wedding"). 1940. 65 x 90 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa. National Museum, Warsaw
Wojciech Kossak: Wesele krakowskie ("Cracovian Wedding"). 1940. 65 x 90 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa. National Museum, Warsaw 

Józef Brandt: Wesele kozackie. 1893. Olej na płótnie. 243 x 156 cm. Muzeum Górnośląskie w Bytomiu.
Józef Brandt: Wesele kozackie. 1893. Olej na płótnie. 243 x 156 cm. Muzeum Górnośląskie w Bytomiu.

Józef Brandt: Powitanie stepu. 1874. Olej na płótnie. 116 x 251 cm.
Józef Brandt: Powitanie stepu. 1874. Olej na płótnie. 116 x 251 cm.

Aleksander Orłowski: Scena batalistyczna. 1802. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków
Aleksander Orłowski: Scena batalistyczna. 1802. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków

Juliusz Kossak: Taniec tatarski. 1885.
Juliusz Kossak: Taniec tatarski. 1885.

Juliusz Kossak: Potyczka. Bez daty. Akwarela, papier. 24,5 x 32 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Juliusz Kossak: Potyczka. Bez daty. Akwarela, papier. 24,5 x 32 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Juliusz Kossak: Rotmistrz chorągwi pancernej. 1886.
Juliusz Kossak: Rotmistrz chorągwi pancernej. 1886. 

Józef Brandt Towarzysz pancerny. 1890. Olej na desce. 35 x 29 cm. Własność prywatna.
Józef Brandt Towarzysz pancerny. 1890. Olej na desce. 35 x 29 cm. Własność prywatna.

Józef Brandt: Jeździec kozacki. 1877. Gwasz. 26,5 x 36,5 cm. Własność prywatna.
  Józef Brandt: Jeździec kozacki. 1877. Gwasz. 26,5 x 36,5 cm. Własność prywatna.
 


Poland's 'strangeness' arises from this very same problem of being 'a perfectly normal country between two abnormal ones'. Polish history seems outlandish to us because - after the disappearance of Poland from the atlas in 1794 - Poland was cut off from the outside world and ceased to be familiar. And the plight of Poland during the Partitions drove Poles to patterns of behaviour and thought which were so extreme - the great patriotic risings of the nineteenth century, the almost religious forms which nationalism took that to luckier peoples they seem unnatural and bewildering.

The country people of Poland, whose views and methods change only slowly. Catholic and patriotic, their ancient motto is 'We Nourish and Defend'.

All the same, the impression of 'strangeness' and the unfamiliarity of Poland have become realities which can't be argued away. Before reading an account of Polish history, it may be useful to summarise some of the elements of that history.

Where is Poland?

The brief answer is: in different places at different times. The Poles themselves, as an ethnic group, are a West Slav people speaking a Slav language whose relationship to Russian is - very roughly - like the relationship of Dutch to German. They have ranged over the flat, originally forested plains of northern Europe between the Oder river and the Pripet Marshes in the east. To the south, they have been bounded by the Carpathian range of mountains; to the north, by the Baltic Sea. The spinal chord of these lands is the Vistula river, rising in the southern mountains, flowing through Kraków in the south and Warsaw in central Poland to the sea at Gdańsk (Danzig).

 THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.
New York 1988


WEST SLAVS IN THE 10th CENTURY

WEST SLAVS IN THE 10th CENTURY


Polish language belongs to the Indo-European family, Slavonic group, West Slavonic subgroup and is spoken by nearly 38 million people in Poland and 44 million people throughout the world, as it is an important immigrant language. Polish is written in the Roman alphabet, with "q", "v", and "x" missing, and with "j" pronounced "y", "w" pronounced v, and "c" pronounced "ts". However, there are a bewildering number of diacritical marks, including acute accents, dots, hooks, and, in the case of the "l", a bar. Polish vocabulary naturally resembles that of the other Slavic languages. Such Polish words as "bez" (without), "most" (bridge), "cena" (price), and "zima" (winter) are identical in Russian, Czech, Bulgarian, Serbian and Croatian. Interestingly, the Polish words for "north," "south," "east," and "west" are respectively "pólnoc" (which also means "midnight"), "poludnie" (noon), "wschód" (rising), and "zachód" (setting). Polish is the only Slavic language with nasal vowels.



Paulus Vladimiri (Polish: Paweł Włodkowic) 1370–1435 He drew the thesis that pagan and Christian nations could coexist in peace and criticized the Teutonic Order for its wars of conquest of native non-Christian peoples in Prussia and Lithuania


Paulus Vladimiri (Polish: Paweł Włodkowic, ca. 1370–1435)
was a distinguished scholar, jurist and rector of the Cracow Academy
 who defended Poland and native non-Christian tribes against the Teutonic Knights and its policies of conquest.


Paulus Vladimiri represented Poland at the 1414 Council of Constance, where he delivered a thesis about the power of the Pope and the Emperor, the Tractatus de potestate papae et imperatoris respectu infidelium (Treatise on the Power of the Pope and the Emperor Respecting Infidels). In it he drew the thesis that pagan and Christian nations could coexist in peace and criticized the Teutonic Order for its wars of conquest of native non-Christian peoples in Prussia and Lithuania. Due to his influence, in 1421 the Pope sent Antionio Zeno to investigate the Teutonic Order and its activities. In 1420 Paulus Vladimiri represented Poland at a conference between Poland and the Teutonic Order held in Wroclaw (Wratislawia, capital of Silesia, south western Poland).
The Knights of the Cross or, Krzyzacy by Henryk Sienkiewicz




DRANG NACH OSTEN

DRANG NACH OSTEN



Most of Poland is level, and - especially in the east - there are large primeval forests where boar , elk, wolves and bison can still be seen. Both these facts are politically important. The flatness has meant that Poland lies on the natural invasion route for those entering Europe from the east and for those attacking Russia from the west. It also means that Poland has no 'natural frontiers' across that east-west axis. As for the forests, they have provided shelter for generations of partisan fighters, most recently for the guerrilla soldiers of the resistance against Nazi occupation. Most of Poland has fertile soil, although towards the east and north-east it becomes poor and sandy, sometimes broken up by marshes and by constellations of lakes. But it is rich in minerals. From the earliest times, the salt deposits near Kraków were a source of wealth and trade, and amber from the Baltic beaches was exported all over Europe. In modern times, first-class coking coal was discovered in Upper Silesia, in the south, and most recently mines for sulphur, copper and lignite (brown coal) have been opened up. But Poland depends on other countries for iron ore and for oil, although one of the first petroleum fields in Europe was established in East Galicia - a part of Poland annexed to the Soviet Union since 1945.

Poland's frontiers have changed wildly throughout history. Sometimes Poland has been a sprawling empire stretching almost from the Black Sea to the Baltic. At other times it has been a little landlocked nucleus, or has vanished completely. At present, since the Allied leaders in 1945 decided to shift it bodily to the west, Poland is roughly where it was when it began a thousand years ago, in the time of the Piast dynasty. This series of changes led Bismarck, the supreme Prussian statesman of the nineteenth century, to dismiss Poland as a 'seasonal state', a sort of sandbank which grows larger or smaller depending on how the rains fill the river. (...)

THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the
First American Edition
Random House Inc.
New York 1988



Józef Mehoffer Wisła pod Niepołomicami. 1894. Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie.
Józef Mehoffer Wisła pod Niepołomicami. 1894. Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie.

Józef Brandt: Nad Dniestrem. 1875. Olej na płótnie. 31,5 x 63,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Józef Brandt: Nad Dniestrem. 1875. Olej na płótnie. 31,5 x 63,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Stanisław Masłowski: Wschód księżyca. 1884. Olej na płótnie. 124 x 220 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Stanisław Masłowski: Wschód księżyca. 1884. Olej na płótnie. 124 x 220 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
 

Józef Chełmoński: Noc na Ukrainie. 1877. Olej na płótnie. 69 x 129 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.
Józef Chełmoński: Noc na Ukrainie. 1877. Olej na płótnie. 69 x 129 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.

Józef Chełmoński: Kurhan. 1912. Olej na płótnie. 111 x 189 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.
Józef Chełmoński: Kurhan. 1912. Olej na płótnie. 111 x 189 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.

Ferdynand Ruszczyc: Strumień. Przed 1900. Własność prywatna.
Ferdynand Ruszczyc: Strumień. Przed 1900. Własność prywatna.

Julian Fałat: Łoś. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 119 x 290 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.  Julian Falat: "Moose in Polesie", c. 1899, oil on canvas, 77 x 202 cm, National Museum, Poznan
Julian Fałat: Łoś. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 119 x 290 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.  
Julian Falat: 
"Moose in Polesie", c. 1899, oil on canvas, 77 x 202 cm, National Museum, Poznan  

Julian Fałat: Łoś. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 96 x 192 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Poznań.
Julian Fałat: Łoś. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 96 x 192 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Poznań.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wilk. Ok. 1895. Olej na płótnie. 82 x 101,7 cm. Własność prywatna.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wilk. Ok. 1895. Olej na płótnie. 82 x 101,7 cm. Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wilki podczas zamieci. Ok. 1910. Olej na płótnie. 90 x 120 cm. Własność prywatna.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wilki podczas zamieci. Ok. 1910. Olej na płótnie. 90 x 120 cm. Własność prywatna.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wilki napadające na sanie. Ok. 1890. Olej na desce. 20 x 31 cm. Własność prywatna.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Wilki napadające na sanie. Ok. 1890. Olej na desce. 20 x 31 cm. Własność prywatna.

Józef Chełmoński: Napad wilków. 1883. Olej na płótnie. 55 x 80 cm. Muzeum Wojska Polskiego w Warszawie.
Józef Chełmoński: Napad wilków. 1883. Olej na płótnie. 55 x 80 cm. Muzeum Wojska Polskiego w Warszawie.

Julian Fałat: Polowanie na niedźwiedzia. 1888. Olej na płótnie. 56 x 106 cm. Muzeum Okręgowe, Bielsko-Biała.
Julian Fałat: Polowanie na niedźwiedzia. 1888. Olej na płótnie. 56 x 106 cm. Muzeum Okręgowe, Bielsko-Biała.

Józef Chełmoński: Jastrząb. Pogoda. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 135 x 196 cm. Własność prywatna, depozyt w Muzeum Narodowym w Poznaniu.
Józef Chełmoński: Jastrząb. Pogoda. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 135 x 196 cm. Własność prywatna, depozyt w Muzeum Narodowym w Poznaniu.

Józef Chełmoński: Kaczki nad wodą. 1880. Olej na płótnie. 66 x 90 cm. Własność prywatna.
Józef Chełmoński: Kaczki nad wodą. 1880. Olej na płótnie. 66 x 90 cm. Własność prywatna.

Władysław Malecki: Sejm bociani. Ok. 1874. Olej na płótnie. 144 x 188 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Władysław Malecki: Sejm bociani. Ok. 1874. Olej na płótnie. 144 x 188 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Józef Szermentowski: Pieniny. 1868. Olej na płótnie. Muzeum Narodowe, Kielce.
Józef Szermentowski: Pieniny. 1868. Olej na płótnie. Muzeum Narodowe, Kielce.

Leon Wyczółkowski:  Las w Zakopanem w słońcu. 905. Pastel na kartonie. 50 x 61 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Leon Wyczółkowski:  Las w Zakopanem w słońcu. 905. Pastel na kartonie. 50 x 61 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Leon Wyczółkowski Giewont o zachodzie słońca. 1898. Olej na płótnie. Własność prywatna.
Leon Wyczółkowski Giewont o zachodzie słońca. 1898. Olej na płótnie. Własność prywatna.

Aleksander Kotsis: Giewont II. Ok. 1870. Olej na tekturze. 30,5 x 55,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Aleksander Kotsis: Giewont II. Ok. 1870. Olej na tekturze. 30,5 x 55,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Jan Nepomucen Głowacki: Dolina Kościeliska w Tatrach. 1840.
Jan Nepomucen Głowacki: Dolina Kościeliska w Tatrach. 1840.

Aleksander Kotsis: Wycieczka w Tatry. 1873. Olej na płótnie. 44 x 75 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Aleksander Kotsis: Wycieczka w Tatry. 1873. Olej na płótnie. 44 x 75 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Leon Wyczółkowski: Morskie Oko z Czarnego Stawu. 1905. Pastel. Muzeum Narodowe, Poznań.
Leon Wyczółkowski: Morskie Oko z Czarnego Stawu. 1905. Pastel. Muzeum Narodowe, Poznań.

Marcin Zaleski: Widok pałacu w Łazienkach latem. 1836-1838. Olej na płótnie. 75,5 x 101,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Marcin Zaleski: Widok pałacu w Łazienkach latem. 1836-1838. Olej na płótnie. 75,5 x 101,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Zygmunt Vogel: Warszawa. Łazienki przy księżycu. 1795. Akwarela, tusz, gwasz, papier. 37,4 x 54 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Zygmunt Vogel: Warszawa. Łazienki przy księżycu. 1795. Akwarela, tusz, gwasz, papier. 37,4 x 54 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Zygmunt Vogel: Warszawa. Amfiteatr w Łazienkach.1794-96. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Zygmunt Vogel: Warszawa. Amfiteatr w Łazienkach.1794-96. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Zygmunt Vogel: Kościół w Ujazdowie pod Warszawą. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Zygmunt Vogel: Kościół w Ujazdowie pod Warszawą. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Władysław Podkowiński: Ulica Nowy Świat w Warszawie w dzień letni. 1892. Olej na płótnie. 120 x 84 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Władysław Podkowiński: Ulica Nowy Świat w Warszawie w dzień letni. 1892. Olej na płótnie. 120 x 84 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Władysław Podkowiński: Ulica Nowy Świat zimą. 1892. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Władysław Podkowiński: Ulica Nowy Świat zimą. 1892. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Józef Brandt: Wyjazd z Wilanowa Jana III Sobieskiego z Marysieńką. 1897. Olej na płótnie. 186 x 343 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa. Muzeum w Wilanowie.
Józef Brandt: Wyjazd z Wilanowa Jana III Sobieskiego z Marysieńką. 1897. Olej na płótnie. 186 x 343 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa. Muzeum w Wilanowie.

Jan Nepomucen Głowacki: Staw na Groblach i przystań flisaków na Wiśle pod Wawelem naprzeciw Dębnik.
Jan Nepomucen Głowacki: Staw na Groblach i przystań flisaków na Wiśle pod Wawelem naprzeciw Dębnik.

Leon Wyczółkowski: Wawel od strony Zwierzyńca. 1910. Akwarela. 35,6 x 45 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Leon Wyczółkowski: Wawel od strony Zwierzyńca. 1910. Akwarela. 35,6 x 45 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Leon Wyczółkowski: Widok Wawelu z Kaplicą Zygmuntowską. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Leon Wyczółkowski: Widok Wawelu z Kaplicą Zygmuntowską. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Julian Fałat: Kraków rankiem. 1897. Olej na płótnie. 69,5 x 40 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Julian Fałat: Kraków rankiem. 1897. Olej na płótnie. 69,5 x 40 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

.Zygmunt Vogel: Wilno. Kaplica w Ostrej Bramie. Biblioteka Jagiellońska w Krakowie
Zygmunt Vogel: Wilno. Kaplica w Ostrej Bramie. Biblioteka Jagiellońska w Krakowie

Józef Szermentowski: Ratusz w Sandomierzu. Muzeum Narodowe, Kielce
Józef Szermentowski: Ratusz w Sandomierzu. Muzeum Narodowe, Kielce

Józef Szermentowski: Droga do wsi. 1872. Olej na płótnie. Muzeum Narodowe, Kielce
Józef Szermentowski: Droga do wsi. 1872. Olej na płótnie. Muzeum Narodowe, Kielce

Dworek w Bronowicach. Po 1903. Olej na Tekturze. 34 x 53,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Dworek w Bronowicach. Po 1903. Olej na Tekturze. 34 x 53,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Stanisław Kamocki: Dworek jesienią. 1909. Olej na płótnie. 101 x 124 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Stanisław Kamocki: Dworek jesienią. 1909. Olej na płótnie. 101 x 124 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Marcin Zaleski: Przyjazd gości. 1839. Olej na płótnie. 82 x 123 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Marcin Zaleski: Przyjazd gości. 1839. Olej na płótnie. 82 x 123 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Maksymilian Gierymski: Obóz Cyganów I. 1867-68. Olej na płótnie. 40 x 63 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Maksymilian Gierymski: Obóz Cyganów I. 1867-68. Olej na płótnie. 40 x 63 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Józef Chełmoński: Przed karczmą. 1877. Olej na płótnie. 71 x 174,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.

Józef Chełmoński: Przed karczmą. 1877. Olej na płótnie. 71 x 174,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.
 
 
Wroclaw, Poland: the capital of Polish Silesia proud of its Roman - Catholic past, present and future
Wroclaw, Poland: the capital of Polish Silesia proud of its Roman - Catholic  past, present and future
Bolko II, Silesian Piast, Polish Duke, Grandson of Polish King Ladislaus, died July 28, 1368. The most eminent sovereign of Silesia, Śląsk, Slezsko, Schlesien
Bolko II, Silesian Piast, Polish Duke, Grandson of Polish King Ladislaus, died July 28, 1368
The most eminent sovereign of Silesia, Śląsk, Slezsko, Schlesien

Śląsk

www.halat.pl/silesia.html

Who are the Poles?

A state is not the same as a nation. This is where Bismarck went wrong, and why so many in the west - where nation and state have come to seem synonymous - find Poland puzzling. But the Poles never mix the two words up. A 'nation' is a group of people united by cultural or racial identity , often by both. Thus a Polish passport will describe somebody as 'citizenship: Polish; nationality. Ukrainian [or Jewish, or German]'. A state is simply the political superstructure which may contain several different 'nationalities'. A state can change its borders, or be suppressed altogether. A nation survives, even if it is moved to another place or unless - as in the case of Europe's Jews under Hitler - it is physically exterminated.

For almost all of Poland's history, it has been a multinational state. Until the nineteenth century, the statement 'I am a Pole' meant 'I am the subject of the Polish crown' and not 'I am a Polish-speaking Slav of the Polish race'.

 THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.,
New York 1988
 
Józef Chełmoński: Orka. 1896. Olej na płótnie. 144 x 217 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu.
Józef Chełmoński: Orka. 1896. Olej na płótnie. 144 x 217 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu.

Leon Wyczółkowski: Siewca. 1896. Olej na płótnie. 88 x 56 cm. Muzeum Śląskie, Katowice.
Leon Wyczółkowski: Siewca. 1896. Olej na płótnie. 88 x 56 cm. Muzeum Śląskie, Katowice.

Stanisław Kamocki: Kłosy. Olej na płótnie. 84,5 x 94 cm. Galeria Obrazów, Lwów.
Stanisław Kamocki: Kłosy. Olej na płótnie. 84,5 x 94 cm. Galeria Obrazów, Lwów.

Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Żniwa 1911 1911. Olej na płótnie. 40 x 69 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Żniwa 1911 1911. Olej na płótnie. 40 x 69 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Dożynki. Ok. 1910. Olej na płótnie. 90 x 137 cm. Własność prywatna.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Dożynki. Ok. 1910. Olej na płótnie. 90 x 137 cm. Własność prywatna.

Józef Chełmoński: Bociany. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 150,7 x 198,3 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.
Józef Chełmoński: Bociany. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 150,7 x 198,3 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.

Józef Chełmoński: Babie lato. 1875. Olej na płótnie. 119,7 x 156,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.
Józef Chełmoński: Babie lato. 1875. Olej na płótnie. 119,7 x 156,5 cm. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie.

Ferdynand Ruszczyc: Młyn w zimie. 1902. Własność prywatna.
Ferdynand Ruszczyc: Młyn w zimie. 1902. Własność prywatna.
 

Juliusz Kossak: Stadnina. 1886. Akwarela, papier. 31,7 x 45,5 cm.  Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Juliusz Kossak: Stadnina. 1886. Akwarela, papier. 31,7 x 45,5 cm.  Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Jan Stanisławski: Ule na Ukrainie. Ok.1895. Olej, płótno. 19 x 29 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Jan Stanisławski: Ule na Ukrainie. Ok.1895. Olej, płótno. 19 x 29 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
 
Julian Fałat: Zbieranie chmielu. 1884. Akwarela na papierze. 23,5 x 37,5 cm.  Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Julian Fałat: Zbieranie chmielu. 1884. Akwarela na papierze. 23,5 x 37,5 cm.  Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Leon Wyczółkowski: Rybacy brodzący. 1891. Olej na płótnie. 131 x 146 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Leon Wyczółkowski: Rybacy brodzący. 1891. Olej na płótnie. 131 x 146 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Franciszek Kostrzewski: Grzybobranie. Ilustracja do III księgi "Pana Tadeusza". Ok. 1860. Własność prywatna.
Franciszek Kostrzewski: Grzybobranie. Ilustracja do III księgi "Pana Tadeusza". Ok. 1860. Własność prywatna.

Wincenty Kasprzycki  : "Fine Arts Exhibition in Warsaw in 1828", oil on canvas, National Museum, Warsaw
 
Wincenty Kasprzycki  : "Fine Arts Exhibition in Warsaw in 1828", oil on canvas, National Museum, Warsaw
 

The proper title of the Poland that was finally destroyed in 1794 was 'The Polish Commonwealth of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania'. This state ruled not only people we would now describe as 'ethnic Poles' - Slavs speaking Polish and almost all of the Catholic religion - but also Lithuanians, Jews, Germans, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Tartars and even some Scots. Their religions were Catholic, Judaic, Calvinist, Lutheran, Islamic, Eastern Orthodox and 'Uniate' (a section of the Orthodox Church which declared its allegiance to the Vatican).

Today, the picture is different. Almost all the inhabitants of modern Poland are Slav Poles who speak Polish, and most of them are practising Catholics. The new Poland created in 1945 is - for almost the first time - a state of one nation. A few small 'national minorities' remain. But almost all Poland's Jews were murdered by the Nazis; the Germans were expelled; the Lithuanians, Ukrainians and Byelorussians vanished behind the new western frontiers of the Soviet Union, leaving only a few thousand living inside Poland's borders. 'Who are the Poles?' is now a fairly straightforward question to answer. But in history the answer was very different and much more complicated.

THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.
New York 1988


What does it mean 'catholic' ?
'catholic' meaning
TheFreeDictionary

- of broad or liberal scope; comprehensive: "The 100-odd pages of formulas and constants are surely the most catholic to be found" (Scientific American).
- including or concerning all humankind; universal: "what was of catholic rather than national interest" (J.A. Froude).
- wide-ranging in one's taste etc a catholic taste in books.
- universal; relating to all men; all-inclusive
- comprehensive in interests, tastes, etc.; broad-minded; liberal

derived via Latin catholicus from the Greek adjective καθολικός (katholikos), meaning "universal" comes from the Greek phrase καθόλου (kath'holou), meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words κατά meaning "about" and όλος meaning "whole"

Jan Matejko (1872) "Astronomer Copernicus, conversation with God", oil on canvas (221 × 315 cm, 87 × 124 in), Jagiellonian University Museum
"Astronomer Copernicus, conversation with God" by Jan Matejko (1872)
oil on canvas (221 × 315 cm, 87 × 124 in), Jagiellonian University Museum, Cracow, Poland

"To know the mighty works of God; to comprehend His wisdom and majesty and power; to appreciate, in degree, the wonderful working of His laws, surely all this must be a pleasing and acceptable mode of worship to the Most High, to whom ignorance can not be more grateful than knowledge." Copernicus as quoted in "Poland : The Knight Among Nations (1907) by Louis E. Van Norman, p. 290"

Father canon
Nicolaus Copernicus (Niclas Kopernik or Koppernigk, from a village Koperniki, [first mentioned in 1272, the Duchy of Nysa, Bishopric of Wroclaw, Poland], in the administrative district of Nysa, within Nysa County, Opole Voivodeship, Polish Silesia, southwestern Poland), born 9 February 1473, died 24 May 1543, was a Roman Catholic priest (adressed father, abbreviation: f/fa/fr), Roman Catholic Church administrator (held the office of canon, the office of Administrator of the Warmian chapter estate, Warmia, Poland), a graduate of Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland, jurist with a doctorate in the canon law of the Catholic Church, physician, mathematician, Poland's most outstandingly loyal diplomat and defender of Poland against the German Teutonic Order, and an astronomer. Fr. Copernicus' epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in 1543, is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution. His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.

The not-yet-censored by a Lutheran editor manuscript of Fr. Nicholas Copernicus'
ON THE REVOLUTIONS, Book One, Introduction

The not-yet-censored by a Lutheran editor manuscript of Fr. Nicholas Copernicus’ ON THE REVOLUTIONS, Book One, Introduction "all the good arts serve to draw man’s mind away from vices and lead it toward better things"
"all the good arts serve to draw man’s mind away from vices and lead it toward better things"

manuscript
translation to English by Edward Rosen



Józef Brandt: Bogurodzica. Ok. 1909. Olej na płótnie. 160 x 302 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Wrocław.
Józef Brandt: Bogurodzica. Ok. 1909. Olej na płótnie. 160 x 302 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Wrocław.
Mother of God Bogurodzica
This is a very ancient hymn. Chronicles state that it was sung by the Polish Knights as they marched to the battlefield.
here
 

Marcin Zaleski: Wnętrze katedry św. Jana w Warszawie. 1836-1840. Olej na płótnie. 100 x 75 cm. Galeria Obrazów, Lwów.
Marcin Zaleski: Wnętrze katedry św. Jana w Warszawie. 1836-1840. Olej na płótnie. 100 x 75 cm. Galeria Obrazów, Lwów.
 

Marcin Zaleski: Kościół Dominikanów w Krakowie (przed pożarem w 1850 roku).
Marcin Zaleski: Kościół Dominikanów w Krakowie (przed pożarem w 1850 roku).
 

Marcin Zaleski: Plac Krasińskich z kościołem Pijarów w Warszawie. 1830. Olej na płótnie.
Marcin Zaleski: Plac Krasińskich z kościołem Pijarów w Warszawie. 1830. Olej na płótnie.
 

Franciszek Kostrzewski: Odpust na wsi. 1866. Olej na płótnie. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Franciszek Kostrzewski: Odpust na wsi. 1866. Olej na płótnie. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.

Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Niedzielny poranek. Ok. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 44,5 x 56,5 cm. Własność prywatna
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski: Niedzielny poranek. Ok. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 44,5 x 56,5 cm. Własność prywatna
 

Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Święcone w Bronowicach. 1897. Olej na płótnie. 134 x 248 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Święcone w Bronowicach. 1897. Olej na płótnie. 134 x 248 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Procesja w Bronowicach. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 114 x 174 cm. Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego, Warszawa.
Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Procesja w Bronowicach. 1900. Olej na płótnie. 114 x 174 cm. Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego, Warszawa.

Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Różaniec. Ok. 1905. Olej na płótnie. 95 x 150 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Poznań.
Włodzimierz Tetmajer: Różaniec. Ok. 1905. Olej na płótnie. 95 x 150 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Poznań.

Julian Fałat Przed cerkwią. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 75 x 200 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.
Julian Fałat Przed cerkwią. 1899. Olej na płótnie. 75 x 200 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Kraków.

Józef Brandt: Modlitwa na stepie. Ok.1893. Olej na płótnie. 151 x 303 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
Józef Brandt: Modlitwa na stepie. Ok.1893. Olej na płótnie. 151 x 303 cm. Muzeum Narodowe, Warszawa.
 

Maksymilian Gierymski: Modlitwa Żydów w dzień szabasu. 1871. Olej na płótnie. 71 x 114 cm. Oblastni Galerie, Liberec.
Maksymilian Gierymski: Modlitwa Żydów w dzień szabasu. 1871. Olej na płótnie. 71 x 114 cm. Oblastni Galerie, Liberec.

Ferdynand Ruszczyc: Krzyż w śniegu
Ferdynand Ruszczyc: Krzyż w śniegu
 
 

The Partitions lasted until 1918, when Poland regained its independence. This meant that they were still in living memory when Poland was partitioned again in 1939 between Hitler's Germany and the Soviet Union, who declared that the Polish state was an 'abortion' which had been abolished for ever. After Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, all Poland came under Nazi rule. This 'Fourth Partition', although it lasted for less than six years, brought with it more savagery and slaughter than all its predecessors. Hitler not only destroyed the state but - if he had not been defeated - would have proceeded to destroy the Polish nation as well by the same methods of mass murder which he applied to the Jews.

There were four major insurrections in occupied Poland during the Partitions, and countless national conspiracies. In a way , the 1944 Warsaw Rising against the Germans was a fifth insurrection. All the risings ended in heroic defeat. But the Poles became practised conspirators, and developed a lasting disrespect for all authority - which for so long was foreign.

Russia and Prussia, especially, tried to suppress both Polish culture and language and the Catholic faith. In response, the Poles developed one of the most intense and self-sacrificing versions of Romantic nationalism ever seen in Europe. In its most extreme form - known as 'Messianism' - Poland was thought to be the collective reincarnation of Christ, to be crucified and then resurrected for the redemption of all nations.


..."Denn Deutschland ist ja nicht Polen. Polen blieb eins, als es das Land überhaupt nicht mehr gab, Jahrhunderte lang.
Die Polen haben ihre Identität
unter den Zaren und den Preußen nicht verloren, auch nicht unter den Nazis oder den Bolschewiken."...

During the nineteenth century , the definition of a 'Pole' gradually changed. The Partition powers - on the 'divide and rule' principle - played off the ambitions of the other nationalities against those of the Slav and Catholic Poles. As a result, the old idea of a multi-racial Poland decayed, as the ethnic Poles came to suspect other races - especially Ukrainians and Jews - of collaborating with the Partition powers and of lacking commitment to the fight to regain independence.

(...)

During the Partitions, and especially after the November Rising in 1830, a large part of Poland's political, military and cultural leadership fled abroad. They settled in Paris, above all, where they became the recognised voice of their suppressed nation in the world. Much of the planning of the insurrections took place in Paris or London, and the best part of Poland's classic literature was composed in France. In the First World War, committees of Polish exiles in France and Switzerland were able to persuade Britain, France and the United States to restore an independent Poland after their victory. In the Second World War, the Poles followed the same tradition by setting up a government in exile near Paris and then in London.

In the later nineteenth century, there began an enormous economic emigration from the Polish lands, mostly of poor peasant families seeking a better life in North America or in the coal-mining areas of France, Belgium and Germany.

Out of these two very different currents of emigration there grew up the idea of Polonia - the notion that Poland did not exist only on the river Vistula but throughout the world, wherever Polish communities had settled. There is only one familiar parallel to this. It is the worldwide Diaspora of the Jews, and their attachment to the idea - and then the reality - of the land of Israel. The period of the Partitions left the Poles with violent but sometimes very mixed feelings about the rest of Europe. It was natural enough that they learned to hate and distrust Russians and Germans. But there were differences even here. With the Prussians and Germans, seen by Poles as inhuman and mechanical, it was difficult to make any contact. Polish attitudes to Russia, though, were more contradictory . There was contempt for Russian 'barbarousness', but also a fascination with Russia's size and power. There was loathing for the Russian schoolmaster bullying children who spoke Polish in class, but there was also real affection - even a sense of Slav kinship - for the open-heartedness and generosity of simple Russians. This is a mixture of emotions that has lasted.

During the Partitions, the Poles came to see France as their truest friend in the outside world. There was some background to this: the French and Polish royal families had intermarried, French had become the polite language of the great Polish aristocrats, and Poland had drawn many ideas from the Enlightenment and the Revolution of 1789 before its fall. Afterwards, Napoleon supported the Polish cause (for his own ends), and for most of the nineteenth century French governments not only welcomed Polish exiles but loudly endorsed their calls for the restoration of independence.

Apart from words, though, not much was done to help. As the years passed, and the twentieth century began, Polish feelings not just about France but about the United States and Britain became ambiguous. These were 'free' countries in which - France especially - Poles felt at home. At the same time, Poles came to realise that these governments would offer their country little more than sympathy and applause. The Poles felt themselves to be culturally part of 'the Christian West', but the west did not reciprocate - would, indeed, betray Poland for the sake of a quiet life. As a result, attitudes towards the west became the queer compound they still remain: yearning admiration combined with sardonic mistrust. The Second World War, which left most Poles with a sense that they had been betrayed and abandoned by their Allies in the West, strongly reinforced this trauma.

After nearly two centuries of intermittent persecution the Catholic Church in Poland has emerged more influential in civil society than in almost any other country in the world. Well over three-quarters of the population, including many members of the Polish United Workers' Party (the Communists) regard themselves as believers. At the same time, the Church itself in Poland is unusual in its attitudes. It is highly conservative over matters like abortion and contraception, but at the same time 'classless': a church of the people. It is intensely patriotic and often openly 'political', claiming a special right to act as the voice of popular opinion about anything from working conditions in factories to the curricula of universities.

This is the result of the Partitions, and especially of that 'Fourth Partition' of the Nazi occupation. After 1795, the Catholic Church became the main institution which preserved and defended Polish culture, language and identity against foreign oppression. The 'Black Madonna', the ancient icon of the Virgin which is kept in Poland's holiest shrine, the monastery at Częstochowa, became - with her sad, scarred face - the symbol of Poland's suffering and hope. Many priests and some bishops took part in the patriotic conspiracies and risings of the nineteenth century . As in Ireland under the English, the Catholic faith and the struggle for independence became fused and inseparable in the minds of the population. (...)

THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.
New York 1988

Jasna Gora Monastery: famous miraculous image of Black Madonna
of Czestochowa, Polish Silesia
is the most precious national treasure
Jasna Gora Monastery famous miraculous image of Black Madonna of Czestochowa Polish Silesia is the most precious national treasure
The Jasna Góra Monastery (Polish: Jasna Góra, Chinese: 光明山, Czech: Jasná Hora, English: Luminous Mount, German: Klarenberg, Hellerberg, French: Clermont, Hungarian: Fényes Hegy, Italian: Monte Chiaro, Japanese: ヤスナ・グラ, Latin: Clarus Mons, Lithuanian: Jasna Goros, Russian: Ясна Гура, Spanish: Claro Monte, Swedish: Klare berg, Ukrainian: Ясна Гора) in Czestochowa, Polish Silesia, is the most famous shrine to the Virgin Mary in Poland, the country's greatest place of pilgrimage, and the spiritual capital of Poland. The image of Black Madonna of Czestochowa famous of its miraculous powers is the most precious national treasure.

The Black Madonna of Czestochowa, Jasna Gora, Silesia, Poland
The Black Madonna of Częstochowa, Poland's most beloved icon
The scars on her cheek are said to have been made by the swords of Hussite heretics


Pilgrimage of Our Lady of Czestochowa from ocean to ocean, May - December 2012
from Vladivostok to Fatima: 24 countries 30,000 kilometers, East and West in defense of life.

Pilgrimage of Our Lady of Czestochowa from ocean to ocean, May - December 2012 from Vladivostok to Fatima: 24 countries 30,000 kilometers East and West in defense of life

History in the Making: A Pilgrimage from Ocean to Ocean



 
Holy Mass for the Fatherland on the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. The Garrison Church of St. Elizabeth in Wroclaw, Poland, May 8, 2015.
Celem Niemców była zagłada Słowian. The aim of the Germans was the holocaust of the Slavs. Целью немцев холокост славян.
Holy Mass for the Fatherland on the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. The Garrison Church of St. Elizabeth in Wroclaw, Poland, May 8, 2015. Celem Niemców była zagłada Słowian. The aim of the Germans was the  holocaust of the Slavs. Целью немцев холокост славян. Częstochowski obraz Matki Bożej - Matki Słowian. Obraz jest czczony jednakowo przez katolików i prawosławnych The Chenstokhovsk Icon of the Mother of God, Mother of the Slavs. The icon is equally revered by Catholic and Orthodox Christians. Ченстоховская икона Божией Матери - Матери славян. Икона одинаково почитается католиками и православными.
Częstochowski obraz Matki Bożej - Matki Słowian. Obraz jest czczony jednakowo przez katolików i prawosławnych.
The Chenstokhovsk Icon of the Mother of God, Mother of the Slavs. The icon is equally revered by Catholic and Orthodox Christians.
Ченстоховская икона Божией Матери - Матери славян. Икона одинаково почитается католиками и православными.



Lastly, the Partitions gave a special, mystical quality to Polish nationalism. 'Messianism', the idea of Poland as a new Christ, has been mentioned. With it went the idea - still voiced by Pope John Paul II - of the sanctity of a nation. Polish Catholics talk as if God created Man in three concentric circles: the individual, the family, and the nation. Any earthly ruler who raises his hand against the independence of a free nation is violating God's law as plainly as a ruler who destroys the rights and the moral independence of a single man or woman. This is why this Polish Pope kisses the ground of each nation that he visits, and why Poles consider their struggles for justice and independence not only as a political cause but also as a moral crusade. 

(...)

In the first half of the nineteenth century, Polish independence had been high in the priorities of European liberalism. Revolutions then were 'national' revolutions, the liberation of peoples from an 'imernational' league of reactionary Popes, Emperors and Kings. France, above all, had given moral support to the Polish cause, and had welcomed the Polish exiles after the failed insurrection of 1830 - 31; they were given state pensions corresponding to their rank. Even in Germany, a young revolutionary generation had given its heart to the Poles as the bravest fighters in the struggle for national liberty and constitutional government. But after the revolutionary wave of 1848, in which Polish exiles fought on the barricades in France, Italy and Germany, in Prague, Vienna and in the tremendous national uprising in Hungary , the climate  slowly changed. The surge of 1848 failed to overthrow the systems in Austria and Prussia, and did not touch Russia. Germans, faced in 1848 with the threat that Polish independence would mean the partial dismemberment of Prussia, withdrew their sympathy.

By 1900, a 'realistic' assessment of Polish chances could only be discouraging. Prussia had become the controlling element in a German Empire. Russia had begun to industrialise, enforcing an even more centralized and repressive regime on its dominions. The Habsburg Empire had become a 'dual monarchy' of Austria-Hungary in 1867, but attempts by Galicia, the Polish province under Austrian control, to win an autonomous status like that of Hungary had been weak and unsuccessful.
The trend in Europe seemed to be towards consolidation into a few vast supranational powers, towards a new epoch in which the aspirations of small, suppressed nationalities would become anachronisms. Both Germany and Russia had embarked on policies designed to eradicate what remained of Polish cultural and political identity. The huge scale of modern armies and the power of their weapons, now rapidly mobile along railway lines constructed principally for military reasons, reduced the chances of any old-fashioned national uprising.

In the Polish lands themselves, there were signs that the old cause of independence was beginning to disintegrate. Industrial capitalism, developing most rapidly in the Russian partition, established its markets and its finance within the separate framework of the three empires, and - even where its owners were Polish - saw its interests in gradual change and reform rather than in the violent upheaval of national revolution.

(...)

But what was it, anyway, that Polish patriots wished to restore? This was not a simple question. Poland had not been an island, but a multinational state with no natural boundaries except the Baltic Sea to the north and the mountain wall of the Carpathians in the south. In its 800 years of existence, ending with the Third Partition in 1795, its frontiers had shifted all over the map of eastern Europe. To demand the 'restoration of Poland' was to meet the question:'Which Poland, of what kind?'

Two elements had dominated most of Polish history. One was the relationship between Poland and Lithuania, the huge and more primitive dukedom to the north-east which remained pagan until the end of the fourteenth century. The second was the exceptionally strong position of the Polish nobility and gentry, which became the dominant class in society in the late Middle Ages and which prevented the development of an absolute monarchy.

THE STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
excerpts of  the 
First American Edition
Random House Inc.
New York 1988



Michal Boym, Polish Jesuit, Chinese scientist, 1612-1659
Michal Boym SJ, Polish Jesuit, Chinese scientist,  1612-1659
卜弥格 ( 波兰, 1612—1659 )
Seventeenth-century Polish Jesuits in China:


著作
《中国地图册》
《中国植物志》(1656年 维也纳出版)
《中国医药概说》
《中国诊脉秘法》

2.《中国植物志》
在动植物学领域,卜弥格的拉丁文著作《中国植物志》1656年在维也纳出版,此书收录中国名花和珍奇动物若干种,标有中国名称,并附有23幅插图。
弥 格的《中国植物志》从许多方面来说,都是值得注意的。这是欧洲发表的第一部关于远东和东南亚大自然的著作。有些学者认为,卜弥格是第一个采用“植物志”这 个名称的科学家。它对中国的植物(和动物)的介绍和其中的插图,却是欧洲将近一百年来人们所知道的关于中国动植物的仅有的一份资料,而且它的内容涉及面很 广。后来一些热衷于编撰普及读物的人曾多次翻印过它,还有一些到过中国也了解中国的学者也利用过这份资料。
《中国植物志》的发表比其他一些论述远东和东南亚植物的著作早几十年。在欧洲,不论17世纪还是18世纪,都没有一个植物学家能够像卜弥格那样,根据自己 在中国的实地考察和经验,撰写和发表过什么东西。

3.《中国医药概说》、《中国诊脉秘法》
在 医药学领域,卜弥格曾在故乡担任过王室御医,对医药学颇有研究,来华后以深厚的西学理论来探讨中国的传统医学,颇有建树。其著作《中国医药概说》,收录中 药若干种,并附木版、铜版插图,此书现藏法国巴黎国立图书馆。《中国诊脉秘法》介绍了魏晋时期著名医学家王叔和的《脉经》,以及中国医学看舌苔的察病方 式,曾引起欧洲文化界的注意,后被译为欧洲多种文字刊行,此书现藏大英博物馆。

三、学术评价
作为一个旅行家和渊博的学者,卜弥格 在他的一生中不仅到过中国,而且也曾多次到过非洲、印度和东南亚各国,通过对这些地方长时期的考察和研究,他撰写了大量有关这些国家,特别是中国古代的动 植物、矿物、医学、历史、地理、人种学、哲学、语言学和人民生活习俗等的具有很高科学价值的著作。虽然这些著作在他生前和身后很少得到出版,有不少散佚, 有的甚至被人剽窃、篡改或者冒名顶替地发表,使得他在中西文化交流史上所做的贡献鲜为人知,但是它们仍对后世产生了深远的影响,卜弥格也因此被誉为波兰的 马可·波罗。

Works
The Atlas of China
Latin Mappa Imperii Sinarum
The flora of China
Latin: Flora Sinensis
 is one of the first European natural history books about China, published in Vienna in 1656
Of the survey of Chinese medicine
Latin: Specimen Medicinae Sinicae, sive Opuscula Medica ad Mentem Sinensium, Edidit Andreas Cleyer
The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse
Latin: Clavis Medica ad Chinarum Doctrinam de Pulsibus, autore Michaelo Boymo.
A manuscript on pulse lore written by the Polish father Michael Boym (1612-1659) was “lost” in Batavia in 1653. A French manuscript about “the secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse”, probably written in Canton (Guangdong) during the 1660s, was printed in Grenoble in 1671, but remained almost unnoticed. more
2. "Flora of China."
In the field of plants and animals, Boym's Latin book "Flora of China," published in 1656 in Vienna, the book contains a number of Chinese species of flowers and rare animals, marked with the Chinese name, along with 23 illustrations.
 This is the first released in Europe on the Far East and Southeast Asia works of nature.  Some scholars believe that Boym is the first use of "Flora" is the name of the scientist. Its Chinese plant (and animal) the introduction and one of the illustrations, but it is nearly a hundred years the people of Europe know about the Chinese flora and fauna of an information only, and its wide-ranging content.  Later, some interested in the preparation of popular books were reprinted many times over it, and some have been to China but also understand Chinese scholars also made use of this information.
 "Flora of China" was published and the Far East than in some other discussion of the writings of early Southeast Asian plants for decades. In Europe, regardless of the 17th century or 18th century, not a botanist can do as Boym, as in China, according to their own field trips and experience, written and published something.
3. "A Summary of Chinese Medicine", "The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse"
In the field of medicine, Boym has served as royal physician in his hometown of medicine who has studied, after the deep Western China to explore the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, many achievements. His book, "A Summary of Chinese Medicine", contains several kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, along with woodblock, copperplate illustrations, this book is Tibetan National Library in Paris, France. "The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse" describes the famous physician Wang Shu, and Wei-Jin period of "Pulse" and see the tongue of the Chinese medicine way police disease, has attracted the attention of the cultural sector in Europe, after being translated into many languages ​​in Europe published, the book now in the possession of the British Museum.
Third, the academic evaluation as a traveler and profound scholar, Boym in his life not only to China, and has repeatedly been to Africa, India and Southeast Asian countries, through a long period of these places study and research, he has written extensively about these countries, especially China ancient plants and animals, minerals, medicine, history, geography, ethnology, philosophy, linguistics and customs of other people's lives with a high scientific value of the book. Although these works during his lifetime, and behind seldom published, many Sanyi, some even being plagiarism, tampering, or impersonation to publish, making his contribution to the history of cultural exchange between the little-known, but they still had a profound impact on future generations, Boym therefore known as the Marco Polo in Poland.



St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe is the patron saint of drug addicts, political prisoners, families, journalists, prisoners, amateur radio and the pro-life movement. Pope John Paul II declared him "The Patron Saint of Our Difficult Century".


St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe
January 8, 1894 – August 14, 1941

St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe was born in Zduńska Wola, in Russian Occupied Poland. He was baptized Raymond at the Parish Church. Already proficient in virtue, the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to him in 1906 A. D., about the time of his first communion.

She offered him the graces of virginity and martyrdom and asked him which he wanted. Filled with zeal, he begged for both, and was filled thereafter with the most ardent desire to love and serve this Immaculate Queen.

He joined the Order of Friars Minor Conventual at Lvov in Austrian Occupied Poland, where he took the name Maximilian, and after finishing preliminary studies he was sent to the International Seraphic College in Rome to pursue doctorates in philosophy and theology.

In 1917 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the conversion of Alphonse Ratisbon, renowned anti-Catholic and agnostic of Jewish lineage, St. Maximilian was moved by divine grace to found a pious association of the faithful known as the Militia of the Immaculate .

The Militia was to be a loosely organized tool in the hands of the Immaculate Mediatrix for the conversion and sanctification of non-Catholics, especially those inimical to the Church. Its members consecrated themselves to the Blessed Virgin Mary, invoked Her daily for the conversion of sinners, and strove by every licit means to build up the Kingdom of the Sacred Heart throughout the world.

Ordained to the priesthood in 1918, St. Maximilian returned to Poland to teach Church History in Cracow, where he organized the first group of the Militia outside of Italy. Because of ill health he was freed to devote his time exclusively to the promotion of the Militia, whereupon he founded the "Knight of the Immaculate," a monthly Roman Catholic Magazine promoting the knowledge, love and service of the Immaculate Virgin, in the conversion of all souls to Christ Our Lord.

The phenomenal growth of this apostolate led to the foundation of the first city of the Immaculate, Niepokalanow in 1929. This was a friary of Franciscan priests and brothers engaged in the use of all kinds of modern equipment so as to promote via the mass media the Militia through all parts of Poland.

St. Maximilian, heeding the call of the Holy Father to all religious, to come to the aid of the missionary efforts of the universal Church, volunteered to go to the Orient.  1930年(昭和5年)にゼノ修道士らと来日すると長崎でも翌月には日本語版の「無原罪の聖母の騎士」誌の出版を開始。翌年には聖母の騎士修道院を設立し た。Between 1930 and 1936 he took a series of missions to Japan, where he founded a monastery at the outskirts of Nagasaki, a Japanese paper and a seminary. Mugenzai no Sono (the Garden of the Immaculate), the monastery he founded remains prominent in the Roman Catholic Church in Japan. Kolbe decided to build the monastery on a mountain side that, according to folk beliefs[citation needed], was not the side best suited to be in harmony with nature. When the atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Kolbe's monastery was saved because the blast of the bomb hit the other side of the mountain, which took the main force of the blast. Had Kolbe built the monastery on the preferred side of mountain as he was advised, his work and all of his fellow friars would have been destroyed.

St. Maximilian returned to Niepokalanow, as it spiritual father, in 1936 and under his able direction the number of the friars there grew above 900 in the months preceding World War II. Publishing apostolate was producing 1,000,000 magazines monthly as well all 125,000 copies of a daily paper for the 1,000,000 members of the Militia worldwide.

After the invasion of Poland by the German Wermacht in September of 1939, the friars dispersed and Niepokalanow was ransacked. St. Maximilian and about 40 others were taken to holding camps, first in Germany, and later in Poland. By the mercy of the Immaculate they were released and allow to return home on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the same year.

During the war the friars turned to caring for about 5,000 Jewish refugees of the Poznan district as well as providing a repair shop for the farming machinery of the locale.

To incriminate St. Maximilian, the German Gestapo permitted one final printing of the "Knight of the Immaculte" in December of 1940.  On 17 February 1941, they came to Niepokalanow and arrested St. Maximlian. He was taken to Pawiak Prision in German Occupied Warsaw, Poland, and on 28 May was transferred to Auschwitz as prisoner #16670.

Over the entrance gate of this concentration camp was a sign in German, ARBEIT MACHT FREI ("Work makes free!"). In reality, upon entering the prisoners were told that all Jews had the right to live only two weeks, Roman Catholic priests 1 month.

At the German Death Camp Auschwitz (der Konzentrationslager des Deutschen Reichs, Vernichtungslager Auschwitz) Roman Catholics were put to death along with persons of Jewish lineage. The objective of Hitler, in his hatred for Jesus Christ, was both to remove all witness to the truth of the original revelation of the God of Israel (the Jewish nation), as well as all who came to believe in Him in His Incarnation by Mary (Roman Catholics).

Thus, St. Maximilian, Knight of the Immaculate Virgin, was placed by Divine Providence at the very center of the ideologic and spiritual conflict of the century, and was destined by God to be the sign of contradiction to a nation given over to diabolic hatred of God and His people.

St. Maximilian, in response to the vicious hatred and brutality of the prison guards, was ever obedient, meek, and forgiving. He gave counsel to all his fellow prisoners "Trust in the Immaculate!" "Forgive!" "Love your enemies and pray for your persecutors!" He was noted for his generosity in surrendering his food despite the ravages of starvation that he suffered, for always going to the end of the line of the infirmary, despite the acute tuberculosis afflicting him.

In the end, by the maternal mediation of the Virgin Mary, he received the grace to be intimately conformed to Christ in death.

In July 1941 a man from Kolbe's barracks vanished. In reprisal, SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl Fritzsch, the deputy camp commander the commandant ordered death by starvation in Block 13 (notorious for torture) for 10 men chosen at random from the same barracks, in order to deter further escape attempts (the man who had disappeared was later found drowned in the camp latrine). One of the selected men, Franciszek Gajowniczek, shouted out, lamenting that he would never see his wife and children again. In his stead, St. Maximilian Mary, who had remained standing all night long during the selection of the condemned, stepped forward and offered his own life in exchange for this man.  During the time in the cell he led the men in songs and prayer. After three weeks of dehydration and starvation, only Kolbe and three others were still alive. He encouraged others that they would soon be with Mary in heaven. Each time the guards checked on him he was standing or kneeling in the middle of the cell and looking calmly at those who entered, while the others lay moaning and complaining, on the ground around him. He was killed with an injection of carbolic acid. Some who were present at the injection say that he raised his left arm and calmly waited for the injection. His remains were cremated on the Assumption of Mary (August, 15).

Pope Paul VI beatified St. Maximilian in 1973 and Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1982 as a martyr of charity.

St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe is the patron saint of drug addicts, political prisoners, families, journalists, prisoners, amateur radio and the pro-life movement. Pope John Paul II declared him "The Patron Saint of Our Difficult Century".

St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe's life and work continues today in the religious institutes of the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate, the Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate, at the Academy of the Immaculate, and in the movement known as the Mission of the Immaculate Mediatrix.

This document is part of the Home Page of St. Francis of Assisi maintained by the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate.

The Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate are a Roman Catholic Religious Institute of solemn vows headquartered at Benevento, Italy. Their Home Page is maintained from the Marian Friary of Our Lady Queen of the Seraphic Order, New Bedford, MA, United States of America.

Air Maria: This is a web site run by the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate in the United States. Our community is a Roman Catholic religious institute of pontifical rite. Our charism is founded on the spirituality of St. Maximilian Kolbe, which is both Franciscan and Marian. The purpose of this site is to continue in the tradition of St. Maximilian and use the most modern means of communication to promote the welfare of souls by preaching the faith of the Church and making Our Lady known and loved.

 Eternal Word Television Network
聖 母の騎士社



February 16, 2011
秋田の聖母マリアの奇跡
Miracle of Our Lady of Akita
CATHOLIC MORAL TRUTH

秋田の聖母マリアの奇跡 Miracle of Our Lady of Akita

秋田の聖母マリア

1973年から1982年まで、秋田市郊外の、戦後に日本で生まれ た小さな修道会・聖体奉仕会で起きた一連の聖母マリアに関する超自然的な出来事の数々は、摂 理的に出来事に立会い、詳細を記録しながら資料を収集していった安田貞治神父(神言修道会) の著作によって世界中に知られており、現在においても国内と周辺諸国、そして世界からの巡礼 者が絶えません。

聖体奉仕会・全聾の障害を持った笹川カツ子姉妹の身に突然起こった神秘に満ちた出来事の数々、
そ れは聖体におけるイエスの現存の栄光の現われ、守護の天使の現われと導き、笹川姉妹の左手に現われ た十字架形の聖痕、聖母木像の右手に浮かんだ十字架形の傷と血、聖母木像全体から汗がしたたり聖 堂全体に類まれな芳香を放ったこと、聖母マリアの重大な警告をともなう呼びかけのメッセージ、海 外からの来訪者やカトリック教徒以外にも目撃証人が多数に及んだ聖母木像からの数年間におよぶ101 回の涙の奇跡、そして全聾の癒しの予告と成就など、数多くの天からの干渉と驚くべき奇跡によっ て、神秘に満ちた三位一体の神(父と子と聖霊)の臨在の証しが世界に示されました。

そして、1984年には、当時の教区責任者、伊藤庄治郎司教による 慎重で入念な調査の結果、出来事の神秘的な超自然性と信仰における実りを認め、崇敬と巡礼を 許可する声明が出されました。

この奇跡は、歴史を旅する教会と世界のために与えられた重大な神の しるしであり、これからの世界の決定的な社会的、精神的危機の時代に、さらに重大で大胆な改 心の呼びかけのしるしとなっていくでしょう。秋田の聖母マリアは、日本の地に恵みの光として 現われた、偉大な聖母巡礼地です。

この奇跡を通して、創造主であり天の御父である主なる神は、生きて おられ、本当に共におられる、あわれみ深い真の神であることを世界に知らせ、示しています。

2005年10月23日 世界宣教の日 聖体の特別年の終わりに

フランシスコ 小林 徹也

From 1973 to 1982, in the suburb of Akita, communion service took place in meeting the small monastery was born in Japan after the war many of the supernatural happenings on the set of the Virgin Mary, a witness to events in Providence, more While recording the priest began to collect materials Yasuda Sadaharu (Divine Word religious order) is known worldwide by copyright, with current domestic and neighbors leave, never free, and pilgrims from around the world .

Many mysterious events took place suddenly happened to the sister of disability Katsuko Sasakawa all Deaf Eucharist Service Association, which appeared in the Eucharist the glory of the existence of Jesus, appeared and guided the guardian angel of a sister Sasagawa I now left the cross-shaped stigmata, bloody wounds and came to the right of cross-shaped wooden statue of Our Lady, sweat dripping from across the wooden statue of Our Lady extraordinary fragrance emitted by the whole church, Our Lady call alert message accompanied by a significant, lasting from a wooden statue of the Virgin lasted for several years a number of witnesses other than Catholic and foreign visitors from 101 times the miracle of tears, heal the deaf and the whole and achievement of such notice, the amazing miracle from heaven and a number of interference by, mysterious Triune God (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) has shown evidence of the presence of the world.

And in 1984, Chief parish at the time, the result of careful research, prudent by Bishop Department Itou Shiyouzi, the event showed the fruits of faith and supernatural mystic is issued statements to allow pilgrims and Takashi Takashi Mashita.

This miracle is a serious sign of God's Church and the world given to the travel history of the world of the future social and critical during times of spiritual crisis, more serious and calls for bold reform Could become a sign of You. Our Lady of Akita, the light appeared as a blessing in the land of Japan, a great pilgrimage site of Our Lady.

Through this miracle, the Lord God is the Creator and Heavenly Father, are alive, who are both really know the real world that God merciful are shown.
At the end of the Eucharist in a special World Mission Day on October 23, 2005
.

Kobayashi Tetsuya Francisco


シスターアグネス勝子笹川秋田
Sister Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa in Akita

Pope Benedict XVI at the German Concentration Camp Auschwitz, 28 May 2006
Pope Benedict XVI at Auschwitz, 28 May 2006

ADDRESS BY THE HOLY FATHER
He paused to contemplate the memorial in German, “an intimate duty’, he said, as “a son of that people over whom a group of criminals reached power through false promises, in the name of fantasies of greatness, of recovering the honor of the nation and its relevance in the world, promising welfare for all, but also through the force of terror and intimidation, so that our people could be used and abused as an instrument of their frenzy for destruction and domination.”  He gave no answers. Early in the discourse he said: “I am here to beseech the grace of reconciliation,” and to ask “the living God never to permit such things to happen again.”  In that moment, the rainbow had arched across the sky and seemed to arch down to the east, right over the ruins of Crematorium-I" (more)

Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz:
"...A German Pope, Benedict XVI, came here to Cracow and then to Auschwitz, and when he was there, a rainbow appeared. Someone has said it was a sign that we must not forget but we should also forgive."

Das Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau
war das größte deutsche Vernichtungslager.
 
Die Welt on Benedict XVI's pilgrimage
to His Holiness homeland - Germany
September 22, 2011

..."Denn Deutschland ist ja nicht Polen. Polen blieb eins, als es das Land überhaupt nicht mehr gab, Jahrhunderte lang.
Die Polen haben ihre Identität unter den Zaren und den Preußen nicht verloren, auch nicht unter den Nazis oder den Bolschewiken."..



The Washington Times Editorial, October 10, 2007

Eurocrats target Poland

By Paul Belien - Last Thursday, Viscount Etienne Davignon, a Belgian who is the chairman of the secretive Bilderberg Group, celebrated his 75th birthday. Mr. Davignon is a former vice president of the European Commission and the author of the 1970 "Davignon Report" that laid the foundations for a common European foreign policy. In the Viscount's honor a conference about the future of the European Union was held in the prestigious Egmont Palace in Brussels. One of the speakers was the wealthy anti-Bush activist George Soros, another was Daniel Cohn-Bendit, an erstwhile campus revolutionary during the 1968 Paris student riots, who is currently a German member of the European Parliament for the Green Party.

Mr. Soros opined that the EU incarnates the "open society." Mr. Cohn-Bendit advocated that the EU expel member states that are "not European enough." Countries which Europe should throw out because they hamper the EU's aim of transforming itself into a federal superstate are the United Kingdom and Poland. Mr. Davignon reiterated Mr. Cohn-Bendit's position, albeit in a more diplomatic way. Europe should debate its future "without shunning taboos" by pondering "whether countries that systematically thwart European integration should not be ousted."

The so-called Eurocrats dislike the British because the latter believe democracy means that the people decide through their national parliaments. The British oppose technocrats, like Mr. Davignon and his ilk in the unelected EU bureaucracy, who impose trans-European policies that bypass all national legislatures. But what have to Poles done to antagonize the Eurocrats? Today is the "European day against the death penalty." The EU wanted to inaugurate the event with a common European declaration against capital punishment. Poland thwarted this by refusing to sign the declaration because the EU did not condemn abortion and euthanasia as well. Last month, during an EU meeting on the death penalty, the Polish justice minister confronted his Danish colleague with Denmark's annual 15,000 abortions and the latter — a member of the Danish Conservative Party — got so angry that she left the room, slamming the door.

Other countries, such as Belgium and Portugal, accuse Poland of "immoral and unworthy behaviour" by daring to compare abortion and euthanasia to the death penalty. Richard Howitt, a British Labor politician and the vice president of the European Parliament's human rights subcommittee, said that Poland's refusal to reject the death penalty brings into question its commitment to European values.

The Poles are used to being lectured by the Eurocrats in Brussels. Last April, the European Parliament accused Poland of 'homophobia" because it does not want to include homosexuality in the school curriculum. Last May, the European Court of Human Rights found Poland guilty of violating human rights because it banned a "gay pride" parade in Warsaw. Last year, the European Commission threatened to deprive Warsaw of its voting rights in the European institutions if it remained in "serious breach of its obligations on human rights."

The Poles, however, are not easily intimidated. Poland's conservative government has made a farce of Polish internal politics, ending in disgraceful collapse, but it did not shy away from standing up to Brussels. Next week the EU wants to finalize the Reform Treaty, which it badly needs in order to replace the so-called "European Constitution" which was rejected in 2005 by France and the Netherlands. Poland has announced its intention to join Britain in opting out from the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights, which is part of the Reform Treaty.

The refusal of the Poles has angered the EU elites as never before. The latter realize that the position of Warsaw has more to do with the Polish people than with the current government's stubbornness in view of the Oct. 21 Polish elections.While secularism is the EU's prevailing ideology, the Poles keep referring to Europe's Christian heritage. Even if the government of Prime Minister Jaroslaw Kaczynski loses the elections, the Eurocrats are likely to be confronted again and again with a people that has escaped Europe's secularization process.

Poland will play an increasingly prominent role in the next decades, if only because it is one of the few European countries with surging birth rates. In 2006, for the first time in ten years, Poland had a positive natural growth, with 374,000 newborn babies — a rise of 10 percent compared to the previous year. This year will be even better. Mr. Soros may think that the EU incarnates an "open society," but Poland's openness to new life proves that it is one of the few open societies in Europe.

Paul Belien is editor of the Brussels Journal and an adjunct fellow of the Hudson Institute.


Environmental News Network, January 21, 2008 08:24 AM 

EU lawyers say no to Poland's biotech ban

BRUSSELS (Reuters) - European Commission lawyers have stopped Poland's move to ban trade and plantings of genetically modified (GMO) seeds, saying it had no scientific justification, the EU's Official Journal said on Monday.
Poland's plans for what amounts to a national GMO ban, announced last year, quickly drew criticism from experts at the EU executive who routinely scrutinize any such proposals to check that they comply fully with EU law.
As tested on several occasions in the past, the Commission takes the view that if a region wants to ban GMO crops or products, such restrictions must be scientifically justified and crop-specific.
It also believes that a proposed ban mustn't be politically motivated, nor a blanket GMO restriction that might distort the EU's single trading market.
Poland did not provide new scientific evidence to justify its action, as required under EU law, said the Commission's notice published in the latest edition of the Official Journal.
There also had to be a problem specific to the member state making the request, it said.
"The Polish notification does not provide any new scientific evidence relating to the protection of the environment or the working environment," the Journal said.
"The Commission therefore considers that the national provisions notified cannot be approved," it added.
Earlier this month, France said it would activate a provision in European law to suspend the commercial use of MON 810, an insect-resistant maize developed by U.S. biotech giant Monsanto. The Commission has yet to react formally.
(Reporting by Jeremy Smith, Editing by Peter Blackburn)



Vatican issues Lisbon Treaty warning to Irish voters
The Vatican has made an unexpected last-minute intervention on the eve of Ireland's Lisbon Treaty referendum with a warning the European Union threatens the country's "identity, traditions and history".

As Irish voters go the polls for a second time on the treaty, "No" campaigners have seized on comments made by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Vatican Secretary of State, during the Pope's visit to the Czech Republic.
The comments followed unhappiness in the Vatican that the EU refused to recognise Europe's Christian heritage in the text of the Lisbon Treaty.
The EU has also upset Catholics in the past by ruling abortion provision should be treated as a "medical service" no different from any other treatment.
"Individual European countries have their own identity. The EU prescribes its laws or views to them and they do not have to fit with their traditions and history. Some countries are logically resisting this – for example, Ireland," said Cardinal Bertone.
"If Europe recognised homosexual couples as equal to marriage, for example, it would go against its own history. And it would be right to stand against it. The Church wants to encourage states in this."
Coir, a Catholic group that has claimed that religious faith and Ireland's anti-abortion laws are under threat from the EU, welcomed the comments.
"We are very pleased that Cardinal Bertone has come out and said explicitly that the EU is imposing secular values on Ireland," said spokesman Brian Hickey. "It is because the EU has a secular agenda that we are resisting the Lisbon Treaty.
Noel Treanor, the Bishop of Down and Connor, last week lined up with mainstream political parties to tell churchgoers that they could vote for the Lisbon Treaty "without reserve and in good conscience".
But Declan Ganley, the leader of Libertas, which is campaigning for a No vote, said Cardinal Bertone represented the Church's true position.
"I welcome these comments and encourage all practicing Catholics to take them on board before they cast their ballots," he said.
The Irish are voting on the treaty for a second time after rejecting it in a referendum last June.
Brian Cowen, the Irish Prime Minister, has promised voters that he has secured "legal guarantees" from the EU that Ireland's traditional Catholic stance on the family and abortion will remain untouched.
"Europe has listened to the concerns of the Irish people as expressed by them in last year's vote," he said.
(...)


So our 1,000 years of history ends like this

The new European State finally exists and has given itself life – life of a rather Frankenstein sort, but life all the same.
It no longer needs to ask the permission of its member states to act. Ireland, for instance, will no longer be able even to hold a referendum on increased EU central powers.
(...)
Increasingly, the provinces of Europe, which until today were countries, will need its permission to exist at all.
(...)
For most of its members, accustomed to dictatorship, partition, subjugation, occupation, invasion and domination by bigger neighbours, this sort of thing will be familiar. In many ways it will be preferable.
In living memory, their frontier posts were demolished by sneering soldiers and their capitals forced to watch parades of other people’s tanks.
Now, the same frontier barriers are dismantled by unequal treaties, and their currencies replaced by the euro. Nobody dies, though much is lost.

The Telegraph, October 4, 2009

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard

The result in Ireland shows that Europe's usurpers have succeeded
The deed is done. Ireland has been coerced at a moment of acute distress into accepting an EU treaty that emasculates the Irish Supreme Court and that voters have already rejected once.



Karol Józef Wojtyla, John Paul II May 18, 1920-April 2, 2005

Karol Józef Wojtyla, John Paul II May 18, 1920-April 2, 2005

VATICAN CITY, APRIL 2, 2005 (Zenit.org).- Born Karol Józef Wojtyla, John Paul II left his mark occupying the third longest pontificate in the history of the Church. 

Young Karol was born in Wadowice, a small city 35 miles southwest of Krakow, May 18, 1920. 

The second of two sons born to Karol Wojtyla and Emilia Kaczorowska, his small family would not witness his rise to the papacy. His mother died in 1929, his brother Edmund, a doctor, died in 1932 and his father, a non-commissioned army officer, died in 1941. 

He made his First Holy Communion at age 9, and was confirmed at 18. Upon graduation from high school in Wadowice in 1938, he and his father moved to Krakow where Karol entered the Jagiellonian University to study literature and philosophy. 

The Nazi occupation forces closed the university in 1939, and young Karol had to work in a quarry, and then in the Solvay chemical factory to earn his living and to avoid being deported to Germany. 

In 1942, aware of his call to the priesthood, he began courses in the clandestine seminary of Krakow, run by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Krakow. At the same time, Karol Wojtyla was one of the pioneers of the "Rhapsodic Theatre," also clandestine.

After the Second World War, he continued his studies in the major seminary of Krakow, once it had re-opened, and in the faculty of theology of the Jagiellonian University, until his priestly ordination in Krakow on Nov. 1, 1946. 

Soon after, Cardinal Sapieha sent him to Rome where he worked under the guidance of the French Dominican, Garrigou-Lagrange. He finished his doctorate in theology in 1948 with a thesis on the topic of faith in the works of St. John of the Cross. At that time, during his vacations, he exercised his pastoral ministry among the Polish immigrants of France, Belgium and Holland.

In 1948, he returned to Poland and was vicar of various parishes in Krakow as well as chaplain for the university students until 1951, when he took up again his studies on philosophy and theology. In 1953, he defended a thesis on the ethical system of Max Scheler at Lublin's Catholic University. 

He later he became professor of moral theology and social ethics in the major seminary of Krakow and in the Faculty of Theology of Lublin. 

On July 4, 1958, he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Krakow by Pope Pius XII, and was consecrated bishop Sept. 28, 1958. 

On Jan. 13, 1964, he was nominated Archbishop of Krakow by Pope Paul VI, who made him a cardinal June 26, 1967. 

Besides taking part in the Second Vatican Council with an important contribution to the elaboration of the constitution "Gaudium et spes," Cardinal Wojtyla participated in all the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops. 

Since the start of his pontificate Oct. 16, 1978, Pope John Paul II has completed 104 pastoral visits outside of Italy, and 146 within Italy. As Bishop of Rome he has visited 317 of the 333 parishes. 

His principal documents include 14 encyclicals, 15 apostolic exhortations, 11 apostolic constitutions and 45 apostolic letters. 

The Pope has also published five books: "Crossing the Threshold of Hope" (October, 1994); "Gift and Mystery: On the 50th Anniversary of My Priestly Ordination" (November, 1996); "Roman Triptych – Meditations," a book of poems (March, 2003); "Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way" (May, 2004) and "Memory and Identity" (February, 2005). 

John Paul II has presided at 147 beatification ceremonies, proclaiming 1,338 blesseds, and 51 canonization ceremonies, canonizing 482 saints. He has held 9 consistories in which he created 231 (+ 1 in pectore) cardinals. He has also convened six plenary meetings of the College of Cardinals. 

The Holy Father has presided at 15 synods of bishops: six ordinary (1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001), one extraordinary (1985) and eight special (1980, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998(2) and 1999). 

His contact with people has exceeded that of any other Pope. More than 17,600,000 pilgrims have participated in the more than 1,160 General Audiences held on Wednesdays, and more than 8 million pilgrims participate in the events of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 alone. 

 




Piotr Szrek and Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki with tetrapod trackway
Tetrapod tracks reset timing  of four-legged evolution

A team of scientists from Warsaw University found the tetrapod tracks in the Zachelmie quarry in Poland’s Holy Cross Mountains. The rocks that bear the tracks are shallow-water carbonate deposits, from the Wojciechowice Formation, and have been dated to 395 million years old, from the Eifelian stage of the middle Devonian. more: EARTH, The American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA 22302
---------------
Nature 463, 43-48 (7 January 2010) | doi:10.1038/nature08623; Received 21 July 2009; Accepted 29 October 2009
Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland
Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki1, Piotr Szrek2,3, Katarzyna Narkiewicz3, Marek Narkiewicz3 & Per E. Ahlberg4
  1. Department of Paleobiology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, 2S. Banacha Street, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Department of Paleontology, Faculty of Geology, Warsaw University, 93 Żwirki i Wigury Street, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Polish Geological Institute, 4 Rakowiecka Street, 00-975 Warsaw, Poland
  4. Subdepartment of Evolutionary Organismal Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
Correspondence to: Per E. Ahlberg4 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to P.E.A. (Email: per.ahlberg@ebc.uu.se).
Abstract
The fossil record of the earliest tetrapods (vertebrates with limbs rather than paired fins) consists of body fossils and trackways. The earliest body fossils of tetrapods date to the Late Devonian period (late Frasnian stage) and are preceded by transitional elpistostegids such as Panderichthys and Tiktaalik that still have paired fins. Claims of tetrapod trackways predating these body fossils have remained controversial with regard to both age and the identity of the track makers. Here we present well-preserved and securely dated tetrapod tracks from Polish marine tidal flat sediments of early Middle Devonian (Eifelian stage) age that are approximately 18 million years older than the earliest tetrapod body fossils and 10 million years earlier than the oldest elpistostegids. They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish–tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record.
Correspondence to: Per E. Ahlberg4 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to P.E.A. (Email: per.ahlberg@ebc.uu.se).



JAN MILUN


Raymond L. Flynn, U. S. Ambassador, U. S. EMBASSY VATICAN. August 10, 1995:
Mr. Milun is one of many treasures Poland has given the world.

JAN MILUN

KOMITET HONOROWY I GOSCIE

J.E. ks. Biskup Tadeusz Poski
Biskup Polowy Wojska Polskiego
IE. ks. Jan Watroba
Biskup Czestochowski
O. Roman Majewski OSPPE
przeor Jasnej Gory
J.E. ks. Abp. Peter S. Zurbriggen
Nuncjusz Apostolski na Litwie. Lotwie i Estonii
IE. Prof. dr. hab. Jeremiasz
Prawoslawny Arcybiskup Wroclawski i Szczecinski
Ks. Pralat Jerzy Steckiewicz
Wikariusz Generalny Kosciola Katolickiego w Kaliningradzie
Ks. Infulat dr Ireneusz Skubis
Wikariusz Biskupi w Archidiecezji Czestochowskiej
Redakior Naczelny Tygodnika Katolickiego "Niedziela"
O. Dyrektor Tadeusz Rydzyk
Zalozyciel Radia Maryja i TVTRWAM
Ks. Pralat Jan Tracz z Miedzylesia
Ks. Pralat Boleslaw Robaczek z Brzegu
Ks. Pralat Eugeniusz Pyszka z Brzegu
Ks. Kanonik Lucjan Lukaszewicz z Wieliczki 
O. Marian Lubelski OSPPE

Dr Tadeusz Wrona
Prezydent Miasta Czestochowy
Maciej Plazynski, Marszalek
Prezes Stawarzyszenia Wspolnoty Polskiej 
Dr. Alfred Laengle
Austrian Ambassador in Poland
James A. Wolfe
Cultural Affairs Officer American Embassy
 HE Resit Uman 
Turkish Ambassador in Poland & Mrs. Uman
Tadeusz Andzejevski
Doradca Premiera Litwy
Norbert Krajczy
Senator RP
Czeslaw Ryszka
Senator RP
Emilia Blaszak, Dyrektor
Kancelaria Prezydenta RP
Wojciech Kilar, Kompozytor
Janusz Pietkiewicz, Dyrektor Naczelny
Teatru Wielkiego Opery Narodowej w Warszawie
Dr Zbigniew Halat
The Halat Water Institute
Jacek Filus, Zastepca Redaktora Naczelnego
Radio Katowice S.A.
Malgorzata Dybowska, Zastepca Dyrektora 
Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego
Marta Wojcik, Dyrektor
lnstytutu Ks. Prymasa Stefana Kardynala Wyszynskiego
Dr med. Ludmila Ivanowa
Kaliningrad. Russia
Danuta i Jan Skalski, Prezydent
Swiatowego Kongresu Kresowian
Anna i mgr inz. Zbigniew Kuncewicz 
Wojciech Huczynski
Burmistrz miasta Brzegu
Zdzislaw Palewicz, Wicemer
Samorzadu Rejonu Solecznickiego naLitwie
 Dr Marek Krobicki, Dyrektor
Szpital Zakonu Bonifratrow Sw. Jana Grandego
Ewa Sikorska - Trela
Byla Poslanka na Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej AWS
Dr Beata Zawadowicz
Prezes Towarzystwa Lekarzy Czestochowy
 Dr Adam Stys, USA

 

Narod bez pamieci ginie (Jan Pawel II)

Fundamentem dialogu miedzy kulturami, tego szczegolnie skuteczncgo narzedzia budowania cywilizacji milosci, jest przeswiadczenie, ze istnieja wartosci wspo1ne wszystkim kulturom, gdyz sa zakorzenione w naturze czlowicka. W tych wartosciach ludzkosc wyraza swoje najprawdziwsze i najistotniejsze cechy.

Bez woli poszanowania wolnosci kazdego narodu czy kultury i bez ogolnoswiatowej zgodnosci w tym przedmiocie, trudno bedzie stworzyc odpowiednie warunki dla pokoju."

Oredzie na XIV Swiatowy Dzien Pokoju 1 stycznia 1981 r. 


 

List Ambasadora Austriackiego

Der Osterreichische Botschafter
The Austrian Ambassador
Ambasador Austrii

August 6, 2008
 
Dear Mr. Milun!

I would like to congratulate you for the organization of this international concert to honor the 32Sth anniversary of the victorious second Battle of Vienna. Furthennore, I send my warm greetings to all participants and guests and would like to wish you all a pleasant and joyful event, which considering the excellent selection of composers and pieces you will certainly have.

The second siege of Vienna in 1683 and the subsequent victory after the arrival of the relief army under the supreme command of the great Polish king Jan III. Sobieski is not just a landmark episode in Austrian and Polish history, but in European history as well. However, what is more important is the fact, that it was an example of truly lived solidarity among European nations, as they were understood at that time. Witnessing the distress of a fellow country in its struggle with a powerful rival, Jan III. Sobieski was not hesitating to render every possible assistance, be it at the risk of his own life to defend not just the then borders of Europe, but the European culture and its way of life. With his selfless deed Jan III. Sobieski acted as a true European, long before this expression saw light. The Austrian people and especially the citizens of Vienna have ever since been very grateful towards Jan III. Sobieski and still keep him in their hearts and minds.

Although the year 1683 was very important in Polish-Austrian relations the bonds linking the two countries together reach far back to the lSth and 16th century and have continuously been developed since, so that even though we don't share any common border anymore we still have this mutual understanding that we are "cultural neighbors". After the fall of the iron curtain, Poland and Austria joined the European concert of nations called EU and are once again fulfilling their historical responsibility as intennediary between the Western and Eastern parts of Europe. Together we aim for the reunification of our continent and struggle to secure the EU as an area of freedom and prosperity for our future generations in a globalised and multi-polar world. In this regard I would like to mention the endeavors of our friend and former rival Turkey to contribute to our common European project. To reach this goal we shall always bear in mind the deeds of king Sobieski and act in his spirit.

Yours sincerely,
Dr. Alfred Laengle
Austrian Ambassador

Warsaw


TREASURED POLISH SONGS
Polanie Publishing Co., Minneapolis, Minn., 1978


Mother of God Bogurodzica. This is a very ancient hymn. Chronicles state that it was sung by the Polish Knights as they marched to the battlefield. Words: St Adalbert of Prague, Vojtěch, Wojciech,, English version by Sister Mary Grace, H. F. N., Wł. Żeleński
Mother of God Bogurodzica

This is a very ancient hymn. Chronicles state that it was sung by the Polish Knights as they marched to the battlefield.

Words: 
St Adalbert of Prague, (Sv. Vojtěch,  Św. Wojciech)
 born c. 956 – martyred - April 23, 997
 

English version by Sister Mary Grace, H. F. N.,
Arr. Wł. Żeleński  

Virgin all sinless and fairest, __
God's lauded Mother, sweet __ Mary!
In Thy Son's kingdom Mistress loving,
Mother immaculate, Mary! __
Give us ____ now, ___
Send us ____ now, ___
Kyrie eleison, Son Eternal,
As ___ our Savior
The new Covenant's Adam royal,
Mankind's true defender, loyal
Lead Thy children homeward,
There with angels triumph.
There rupture eternal,
Vision Bless'd Supernal,
There ecstacy endless.
Here below ___ we suffer
Satan's evil menace.
Loving Lord ___ and Savior, __
Lead Thy children homeward,
That with choirs of angels
They may sing Thy glory,
Hon'ring Vision Blessed.
Amen, amen, amen
amen, amen, amen,
This grant us, o Lord,
So we pray with one accord:
With Thy Hallowed place us.

National anthem Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła 

National anthem Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła

Juliusz Kossak "Piesń Legionów" MÓWI OJCIEC DO SWEJ BASI,  CAŁY ZAPŁAKANY, SŁUCHAJ JENO, PONO NASI BIJA W TARABANY
Juliusz Kossak "Piesń Legionów" 
MÓWI OJCIEC DO SWEJ BASI,  
CAŁY ZAPŁAKANY, 
SŁUCHAJ JENO, 
PONO NASI BIJA W TARABANY


God who held Poland Boże coś Polskę
God who held Poland Boże coś Polskę

This song became a national hymn in the period after the Uprising of 1830. Its singing was forbidden by the conquering powers and when the lyrics of Serdeczna Matko (Beloved  Mother) were substituted for the same melody even as a religious song, it was forbidden. It is a beautioful, tender hymn.

Words by ks. Alojzy Feliński, English Version by Victoria Janda. K. Kurpiński, Arr. By L. Chojecki.


God who held Poland for so many ages,
In Your protection, glory, and great power,
Who gave Your wisdom to her bards and sages,
And gave Your own shield as her rightful dower.
CHORUS
Before for Your altars, we in supplication
Kneeling, implore You, free our land and nation.

Bring back to Poland ancient might and splendor,
And fruitful blessings to fields and meadows;
Be once again our Father, just, yet tender,
Deliver us from out our dire shadows.
CHORUS
Before for Your altars, we in supplication
Kneeling, implore You, free our land and nation.


Rota - Nie rzucim ziemi skąd nasz ród Patriotic hymn commemorating the victory at Grunwald in 1410  by the Polish Lithuanian forces over the Knights of the German Order
Rota - Nie rzucim ziemi skąd nasz ród  
Patriotic hymn commemorating the victory at Grunwald in 1410  by the Polish Lithuanian forces over the Knights of the German Order


Soldier song of the Legions, year 1915  Wojenko, Wojenko
Soldier song of the Legions, year 1915  Wojenko, Wojenko 


Highland song Góralu, czy ci nie żal

Highland song Góralu, czy ci nie żal 


Tatra Mts Górol ci ja, górol

Tatra Mts Górol ci ja, górol


DZIEJE CYWILIZACJI
W POLSCE JANA MATEJKI

JAN MATEJKO



 

POLES ABROAD
POLACTWO

No roots, no growth




 



"the quixotic and controversial deputy minister of health,
 government sanitary inspector, and chief environmental health officer,
Zbigniew
Halat MD is engaged in a personal crusade
to shake the health service out of the spiritual atrophy
 induced by 45 years of communism.
Hard working, self reliant, aggressive, and abrasively masculine,
 this man of Promethean energies put me in mind
 of a nineteenth century northern mill owner"

Karin Chopin,
Letters from Poland,
Too many advisers, not enough aid,
British Medical Journal, May 30, 1992
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland,
 
Pollution most foul, British Medical Journal, June 6, 1992
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland,
Post-totalitarian medicine, British Medical Journal, June 13, 1992

MOVE FOR HEALTH
WALK POLAND
GMO FREE LAND
NUKES FREE LAND
LAND OF THE FREE

MOVE FOR HEALTH
WALK POLAND

Poles are fiercely independent
and stand up for their beliefs.
US Ambassador to Poland

Victor Ashe, Sept 24, 2008

 




END OF PART 1

PART 2
PART 3
PART 4
 
 

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
(in English, French, Russian, and Polish)



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