BY NEAL ASCHERSON
BY NEAL ASCHERSON
Monument to gen. Jozef Dowbor-Musnicki's Corps men, who fought 1917 - 1918 against the Bolsheviks and against the Germans and who died for the glory of the fatherland; erected 1930, destroyed by the Communists 1948, restored 2001, the Polish Army Museum in Warsaw. Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat. Pomnik Dowborczykom, t.j. poległym ku chwale Ojczyzny oficerom i żołnierzom, którymi dowodził gen. Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki w walkach 1917 - 1918 przeciw bolszewikom i Niemcom. Pomnik postawiony 1930, zniszczony przez komunistów 1948, odbudowany 2001, stoi na dziedzińcu Muzeum Wojska Polskiego ZAMIAST W CENTRALNYM PUNKCIE STOLICY. Znakiem Dowborczyków był krzyż łaciński z POLSKIM ORŁEM W ZAMKNIĘTEJ KORONIE ZWIEŃCZONEJ KRZYŻEM u dołu. Orzeł w zamkniętej koronie, Wrocław, ul. Chrobrego 21.
Godło Polski z 1919, citizenGo.
The lesson of heroism in front of the monument of the Warsaw Uprising 1944. Polish youth always ready to struggle for freedom of the Polish nation, and all humanity. Let Poland rely on her allies. Never more Western betrayal again. Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat. Lekcja heroizmu przed pomnikiem Powstania Warszawskiego 1944. Polska młodzież zawsze gotowa do walki o wolność Narodu Polskiego i całej ludzkości. Niech Polska polega na swoich aliantach. Nigdy więcej zdrady Zachodu.
The flag of Poland symbolism: white symbolizes virginity, red symbolizes heroic bloodshed. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw, Poland, dedicated to the unknown soldiers who heroically shed their blood for Poland, on youtube. Symbolika flagi Polski - biały symbolizuje dziewictwo, czerwony symbolizuje heroiczny przelew krwi. Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza w Warszawie poświęcony nieznanym żolnierzom, którzy heroicznie przelali krew za Polskę, on youtube. POLAND
The Polish way: do it your way, find your strength and wisdom through the Word of God. Fine art photography by Zbigniew Halat
Thinking my country
John Paul II (Karol Wojtyła)
Freedom — a continuing conquest
It cannot simply be possessed!
It comes as a gift, but keeping it is a struggle
Gift and struggle are inscribed on pages, hidden yet open.
For freedom you pay with all your being, therefore call that your freedom
Which allows you, in paying the price,
To possess yourself anew.
At such a price do we enter history and touch her epochs.
Where is the dividing-line between those generations who paid too little
And those who paid too much?
On which side of that line are we?
in 'Memory and Identity: Personal reflections'
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.
ANNO DOMINI 966 MESCO DUX BAPTIZATUR
ROKU PAŃSKIEGO 966 KSIĄŻĘ MIESZKO ZOSTAŁ OCHRZCZONY - IN THE YEAR OF THE LORD 966, DUKE MIESZKO WAS BAPTIZED.
1050 rocznica Chrztu Polski. The 1050th anniversary of the baptism of Poland
Albo Polska będzie katolicka, albo nie będzie jej wcale (Prymas Polski Stefan kardynał Wyszyński, Jasna Góra, 1957)
Either Poland will be Catholic either will cease to exist (the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, Luminous Mount, 1957)
Malowidło naścienne obrazujące scenę chrztu Mieszka, wykonane przez Macieja Rauchmillera z Wiednia w latach 1677 – 1679. Mauzoleum Piastów Śląskich w Legnicy przy kościele p.w. Św. Jana Chrzciciela, Diecezja Legnicka, Archidiecezja Wrocławska.
COECUS ERAS. COECI REX, MIECESLAE, POLONI VISUM ANIMA RECIPIS. SARMATA, REX OCULIS
YOU WERE BLIND. FOR THE BLIND POLISH KING MIECZYSLAW, VISION OF LIFE YOU HAVE RECEIVED. SARMATA, KING OF THE EYES.
Miejsce, w którym odbył się Chrzest Polski według wrocławskiej legendy:
Och, Wrocławiu, Europejska Stolico Kultury 2016 (ESK), jak cudownym jesteś miastem!
Oh! Wroclaw, Poland, European Capital of Culture 2016, ESK, what a wonderful city you are!
Podniosłe i wzruszające obchody dnia Flagi Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej 2. maja 2016
z udziałem Pana Prezydenta
Gaude Mater Polonia O ciesz się, Matko-Polsko Rejoice, oh Mother Poland
"When John Paul II kissed the ground at the Warsaw airport on June 2, 1979, he began the process by which communism in Poland—and ultimately everywhere—would come to an end."
John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War: A New History (Penguin Press in US, Allen Lane in UK)
Quoted by George Weigel: June 1979—The Nine Days of John Paul II
What is next?
John Paul II Homeland: Wadowice, Krakow, Andrychow, Kety, Bulowice, Bielsko-Biala, ZywiecThe long lasting shadow of the German death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau built in Germany occupied Poland in the town of Oświęcim and the village of Brzezinka by the Germans on the land of expelled Poles, and with bricks of their demolished houses.
The joy of love * Radość miłości. The misery of hatred ][ Cierpienie nienawiści. Miss Evelina, age 20, of Brzezinka, Poland, lives in the vicinity of the German death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. Panna Ewelina, lat 20, z Brzezinki, mieszka w pobliżu niemieckiego obozu zagłady Auschwitz-Birkenau
The joy of love, the misery of hatred * Radość miłości, cierpienie nienawiści
Pan Józef Kozioł, przewodniczący Stowarzyszenia Poszkodowanych przez III Rzeszę na Rzecz budowy obozów KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, wypowiedź z dnia 10. kwietnia 2016 r.: Niemcy wypędzili Polaków, z cegieł ich domów zbudowali Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp the Germans built with bricks of houses of expelled Poles.
Neal Ascherson was born in Edinburgh in 1932 and educated at Cambridge.
He is a journalist of international repute (...) He first went to Poland as a reporter on the Manchester Guardian in 1957, and has returned almost every year since; he covered the Solidarity period and the imposition of martial law for the Observer in 1980-81.
In 1988 Neal Asherson writes:
THE STRUGGLES FOR
POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
Suppression of Religious Freedom in Poland
Until the presidential and parliamentary elections of the year 2015:
Polska w Kajdanach - Poland in Chains.
Before for Your altars, we in
Kneeling, implore You, free our land and nation.
Rich with symbols of Poland's struggles for independence after partition.
Mary Sokolowska, age 17, was not afraid to ask the Prime Minister Donald Tusk, looking him in the eye, why he was a traitor to Poland.
An interview, May 23, 2014 (in Polish)
Wywiad z Marysią Sokołowską z Gorzowa Wlkp.
Rafał Zapadka: Pytania spoza kadru (18) do Marysi Sokołowskiej
NIECHAJ ŚWIAT ZNA, JAKIE CÓRKI POLSKA MA!
DAWNIEJ "NIECHAJ POLSKA ZNA, JAKICH SYNÓW MA"
Licealistka z I klasy Maria Sokołowska - Pogromczyni Tuska na Facebooku, lajkujcie póki to nie zabronione
Marysia Sokołowska, lat 17, uosabia zwycięstwo młodego ducha nad szumowiną nienawiści, wulgarności i obsceniczności.
Ten duch uwalnia nas spod władzy podłych myśli, brudnych słów, korupcyjnych działań i zdradzieckich czynów.
Ten duch pochodzi z natchnienia Ducha Świętego
embodies victory of young
spirit over scum of hatred, vulgarity and obscenity.
The spirit frees us from the power of vile thoughts, filthy words, corrupt activities, treasonous deeds.
This spirit comes from the inspiration of the Holy Spirit
Poland is a very strange country, in which I always feel at home. So said the French director Claude Lanzmann, who spent a long time filming in the remote Polish countryside. Many foreigners agree with him, as they leave a land which - in spite of their affection for it - they find bizarre, even exotic, in its past and present. But what exactly is this 'strangeness'?. Too much emphasis on the oddity of Poland becomes destructive, hiding a nation under a crust of caricature. And in the end it is very misleading. In important ways, Poland - one of the older European states - has been more 'normal' than its younger neighbours. This is specially true of its history . For hundreds of years, Poland was an open, tolerant country with many races and religions. The power of the kings was limited by charters and agreements, and great matters were frequently decided by debates and votes. But on either side of it there slowly grew up the more primitive states of Prussia (a military kingdom demanding rigid obedience from its subjects) and Russia, with its tradition of hopeless servility before God-given tyrants. Between these neighbours an enlightened and progressive Poland, in many ways having more in common with western Europe, tried but eventually failed to survive.The modern Polish novelist Kazimierz Brandys once divided the world into countries with corpses under the floorboards - including Germany and Russia - 'and those like France and Poland which have no corpses to hide'. When a visitor commented that Poland was an abnormal country, he retorted: 'It is a perfectly normal country between two abnormal ones'. Brandys points out that for three hundred years, between the Renaissance and the Partitions which abolished Polish independence, Poland functioned without great upheavals, stable at a time when Europe was staggered by peasant revolts, the Inquisition, dynastic wars, religious wars, the Hundred Years War, the Thirty Years War.
Who knows, perhaps it was Europe that was sick, all Europe with the exception of Poland?
THE STRUGGLES FOR
POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
|New Living Translation (NLT)||Słowo Życia (SZ-PL)|
Luke 2247 But even as Jesus said this, a crowd approached, led by Judas, one of the twelve disciples. Judas walked over to Jesus to greet him with a kiss. 48 But Jesus said, “Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”
Jesus Is Betrayed and Arrested
49 When the other disciples saw what was about to happen, they exclaimed, “Lord, should we fight? We brought the swords!” 50 And one of them struck at the high priest’s slave, slashing off his right ear.
51 But Jesus said, “No more of this.” And he touched the man’s ear and healed him.
52 Then Jesus spoke to the leading priests, the captains of the Temple guard, and the elders who had come for him. “Am I some dangerous revolutionary,” he asked, “that you come with swords and clubs to arrest me? 53 Why didn’t you arrest me in the Temple? I was there every day. But this is your moment, the time when the power of darkness reigns.”
Ewangelia według św. Łukasza 2247 Ledwie skończył mówić, nadeszła zgraja ludzi prowadzona przez Judasza, jednego z Dwunastu. Ten zbliżył się do Jezusa i przywitał Go pocałunkiem. 48 – Judaszu, pocałunkiem zdradzasz Mnie, Syna Człowieczego? – zapytał Jezus. 49 Widząc, na co się zanosi, pozostali uczniowie krzyknęli: – Mistrzu, czy mamy użyć miecza? 50 W tej samej chwili jeden z nich zamachnął się mieczem i odciął prawe ucho słudze najwyższego kapłana. 51 – Nie stawiajcie im oporu! – odpowiedział Jezus, po czym dotknął rany i uleczył ucho. 52 Następnie zwrócił się do najwyższych kapłanów, dowódców straży świątynnej oraz starszych, którzy przyszli na to miejsce: – Czy jestem jakimś groźnym przestępcą, że przyszliście po Mnie aż tak uzbrojeni? 53 Dlaczego nie zatrzymaliście Mnie w świątyni? Przecież codziennie byłem tam wśród was! Teraz jednak nadszedł wasz czas – czas władcy ciemności
John 18:10-1110 Then Simon Peter drew a sword and slashed off the right ear of Malchus, the high priest’s slave. 11 But Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword back into its sheath. Shall I not drink from the cup of suffering the Father has given me?”
Ewangelia według św. Jana 18:10-1110 Wtedy Szymon Piotr wyjął miecz, zamachnął się i odciął prawe ucho słudze najwyższego kapłana, Malchusowi. 11 – Schowaj miecz – rzekł do niego Jezus. – Czyż nie mam pić z kielicha, który podaje Mi Ojciec?
Mickiewicz proceeded independently to create the constitutional program of the Polish Legion. The manifesto "Skład zasad, czyli Symbol polityczny Polski" (A collection of principles of a Political symbol of Poland) was composed by Mickiewicz for the legion and in fifteen short articles advocated freedom of conscience, equality of all citizens, equality of women, enfranchisement of peasants, solidarity and brotherhood of Slavic nations.
Christian spirit , the holy Roman Catholic faith , deeds jawiony free .
2 The Word of God , the Gospel preached , the law of nations, home and social life.
3 Church janitor words .
4 Homeland field life of the Word of God on earth.
5 Polish Spirit Gospel servant , Poland earth with his public body . Poland is resurrected in the flesh, in which she suffered and was made in the grave a hundred years ago . Poland in the person becomes free and independent and Sławiańszczyźnie hand gives
6 Estate in Poland freedom to every confession of God to every rite and the church .
7 The word free, freely revealed , fruit judged by the law .
8 Any of the nation is a citizen , every citizen equal before the law and the authorities.
9 Any elective office , freely given , freely taken .
10 Israel's , elder brother , respect , brotherhood, aid on the way to the good eternal and the temporal . Equal in all right .
11 Companion of life, woman of the brotherhood and citizenship , equal in everything right .
12 Each Sławianinowi , residing estate in Poland , brotherhood , citizenship, equal in everything right .
13 Every family has the role of the home under the care of the municipality. Each municipality role cluster under the care of the nation.
14 Any property respected and untouchable in the national guard urzgdowi given .
15 Help the political , familial , due from the Polish brother Czech and people pobratymczym Czech, brother Rus and Rus peoples . Christian Aid every nation as a neighbor.
Google translated, not yet corrected
The Poles love horses
Poland's 'strangeness' arises from this very same problem of being 'a perfectly normal country between two abnormal ones'. Polish history seems outlandish to us because - after the disappearance of Poland from the atlas in 1794 - Poland was cut off from the outside world and ceased to be familiar. And the plight of Poland during the Partitions drove Poles to patterns of behaviour and thought which were so extreme - the great patriotic risings of the nineteenth century, the almost religious forms which nationalism took that to luckier peoples they seem unnatural and bewildering.
The country people of Poland, whose views and methods change only slowly. Catholic and patriotic, their ancient motto is 'We Nourish and Defend'.
All the same, the impression of 'strangeness' and the unfamiliarity of Poland have become realities which can't be argued away. Before reading an account of Polish history, it may be useful to summarise some of the elements of that history.
Where is Poland?
The brief answer is: in different places at different times. The Poles themselves, as an ethnic group, are a West Slav people speaking a Slav language whose relationship to Russian is - very roughly - like the relationship of Dutch to German. They have ranged over the flat, originally forested plains of northern Europe between the Oder river and the Pripet Marshes in the east. To the south, they have been bounded by the Carpathian range of mountains; to the north, by the Baltic Sea. The spinal chord of these lands is the Vistula river, rising in the southern mountains, flowing through Kraków in the south and Warsaw in central Poland to the sea at Gdańsk (Danzig).
STRUGGLES FOR POLAND BY NEAL
WEST SLAVS IN THE 10th CENTURY
|Polish language belongs to the Indo-European family, Slavonic group, West Slavonic subgroup and is spoken by nearly 38 million people in Poland and 44 million people throughout the world, as it is an important immigrant language. Polish is written in the Roman alphabet, with "q", "v", and "x" missing, and with "j" pronounced "y", "w" pronounced v, and "c" pronounced "ts". However, there are a bewildering number of diacritical marks, including acute accents, dots, hooks, and, in the case of the "l", a bar. Polish vocabulary naturally resembles that of the other Slavic languages. Such Polish words as "bez" (without), "most" (bridge), "cena" (price), and "zima" (winter) are identical in Russian, Czech, Bulgarian, Serbian and Croatian. Interestingly, the Polish words for "north," "south," "east," and "west" are respectively "pólnoc" (which also means "midnight"), "poludnie" (noon), "wschód" (rising), and "zachód" (setting). Polish is the only Slavic language with nasal vowels.|
Most of Poland is level, and - especially in the east - there are large primeval forests where boar , elk, wolves and bison can still be seen. Both these facts are politically important. The flatness has meant that Poland lies on the natural invasion route for those entering Europe from the east and for those attacking Russia from the west. It also means that Poland has no 'natural frontiers' across that east-west axis. As for the forests, they have provided shelter for generations of partisan fighters, most recently for the guerrilla soldiers of the resistance against Nazi occupation. Most of Poland has fertile soil, although towards the east and north-east it becomes poor and sandy, sometimes broken up by marshes and by constellations of lakes. But it is rich in minerals. From the earliest times, the salt deposits near Kraków were a source of wealth and trade, and amber from the Baltic beaches was exported all over Europe. In modern times, first-class coking coal was discovered in Upper Silesia, in the south, and most recently mines for sulphur, copper and lignite (brown coal) have been opened up. But Poland depends on other countries for iron ore and for oil, although one of the first petroleum fields in Europe was established in East Galicia - a part of Poland annexed to the Soviet Union since 1945.
Poland's frontiers have changed wildly throughout history. Sometimes Poland has been a sprawling empire stretching almost from the Black Sea to the Baltic. At other times it has been a little landlocked nucleus, or has vanished completely. At present, since the Allied leaders in 1945 decided to shift it bodily to the west, Poland is roughly where it was when it began a thousand years ago, in the time of the Piast dynasty. This series of changes led Bismarck, the supreme Prussian statesman of the nineteenth century, to dismiss Poland as a 'seasonal state', a sort of sandbank which grows larger or smaller depending on how the rains fill the river. (...)
THE STRUGGLES FOR
POLAND BY NEAL ASCHERSON
|Who are the Poles?
A state is not the same as a nation. This is where Bismarck went wrong, and why so many in the west - where nation and state have come to seem synonymous - find Poland puzzling. But the Poles never mix the two words up. A 'nation' is a group of people united by cultural or racial identity , often by both. Thus a Polish passport will describe somebody as 'citizenship: Polish; nationality. Ukrainian [or Jewish, or German]'. A state is simply the political superstructure which may contain several different 'nationalities'. A state can change its borders, or be suppressed altogether. A nation survives, even if it is moved to another place or unless - as in the case of Europe's Jews under Hitler - it is physically exterminated.
For almost all of Poland's history, it has been a multinational state. Until the nineteenth century, the statement 'I am a Pole' meant 'I am the subject of the Polish crown' and not 'I am a Polish-speaking Slav of the Polish race'.
excerpts of the
First American Edition
Random House Inc.,
New York 1988
The proper title of the Poland that was finally destroyed in 1794 was 'The Polish Commonwealth of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania'. This state ruled not only people we would now describe as 'ethnic Poles' - Slavs speaking Polish and almost all of the Catholic religion - but also Lithuanians, Jews, Germans, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Tartars and even some Scots. Their religions were Catholic, Judaic, Calvinist, Lutheran, Islamic, Eastern Orthodox and 'Uniate' (a section of the Orthodox Church which declared its allegiance to the Vatican).
Today, the picture is different. Almost all the inhabitants of modern Poland are Slav Poles who speak Polish, and most of them are practising Catholics. The new Poland created in 1945 is - for almost the first time - a state of one nation. A few small 'national minorities' remain. But almost all Poland's Jews were murdered by the Nazis; the Germans were expelled; the Lithuanians, Ukrainians and Byelorussians vanished behind the new western frontiers of the Soviet Union, leaving only a few thousand living inside Poland's borders. 'Who are the Poles?' is now a fairly straightforward question to answer. But in history the answer was very different and much more complicated.
The Partitions lasted until 1918, when Poland regained its independence. This meant that they were still in living memory when Poland was partitioned again in 1939 between Hitler's Germany and the Soviet Union, who declared that the Polish state was an 'abortion' which had been abolished for ever. After Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, all Poland came under Nazi rule. This 'Fourth Partition', although it lasted for less than six years, brought with it more savagery and slaughter than all its predecessors. Hitler not only destroyed the state but - if he had not been defeated - would have proceeded to destroy the Polish nation as well by the same methods of mass murder which he applied to the Jews.
There were four major insurrections in occupied Poland during the Partitions, and countless national conspiracies. In a way , the 1944 Warsaw Rising against the Germans was a fifth insurrection. All the risings ended in heroic defeat. But the Poles became practised conspirators, and developed a lasting disrespect for all authority - which for so long was foreign.
Russia and Prussia, especially, tried to suppress both Polish culture and language and the Catholic faith. In response, the Poles developed one of the most intense and self-sacrificing versions of Romantic nationalism ever seen in Europe. In its most extreme form - known as 'Messianism' - Poland was thought to be the collective reincarnation of Christ, to be crucified and then resurrected for the redemption of all nations.
During the nineteenth century , the definition of a 'Pole' gradually changed. The Partition powers - on the 'divide and rule' principle - played off the ambitions of the other nationalities against those of the Slav and Catholic Poles. As a result, the old idea of a multi-racial Poland decayed, as the ethnic Poles came to suspect other races - especially Ukrainians and Jews - of collaborating with the Partition powers and of lacking commitment to the fight to regain independence.
During the Partitions, and especially after the November Rising in 1830, a large part of Poland's political, military and cultural leadership fled abroad. They settled in Paris, above all, where they became the recognised voice of their suppressed nation in the world. Much of the planning of the insurrections took place in Paris or London, and the best part of Poland's classic literature was composed in France. In the First World War, committees of Polish exiles in France and Switzerland were able to persuade Britain, France and the United States to restore an independent Poland after their victory. In the Second World War, the Poles followed the same tradition by setting up a government in exile near Paris and then in London.
In the later nineteenth century, there began an enormous economic emigration from the Polish lands, mostly of poor peasant families seeking a better life in North America or in the coal-mining areas of France, Belgium and Germany.
Out of these two very different currents of emigration there grew up the idea of Polonia - the notion that Poland did not exist only on the river Vistula but throughout the world, wherever Polish communities had settled. There is only one familiar parallel to this. It is the worldwide Diaspora of the Jews, and their attachment to the idea - and then the reality - of the land of Israel. The period of the Partitions left the Poles with violent but sometimes very mixed feelings about the rest of Europe. It was natural enough that they learned to hate and distrust Russians and Germans. But there were differences even here. With the Prussians and Germans, seen by Poles as inhuman and mechanical, it was difficult to make any contact. Polish attitudes to Russia, though, were more contradictory . There was contempt for Russian 'barbarousness', but also a fascination with Russia's size and power. There was loathing for the Russian schoolmaster bullying children who spoke Polish in class, but there was also real affection - even a sense of Slav kinship - for the open-heartedness and generosity of simple Russians. This is a mixture of emotions that has lasted.
During the Partitions, the Poles came to see France as their truest friend in the outside world. There was some background to this: the French and Polish royal families had intermarried, French had become the polite language of the great Polish aristocrats, and Poland had drawn many ideas from the Enlightenment and the Revolution of 1789 before its fall. Afterwards, Napoleon supported the Polish cause (for his own ends), and for most of the nineteenth century French governments not only welcomed Polish exiles but loudly endorsed their calls for the restoration of independence.
Apart from words, though, not much was done to help. As the years passed, and the twentieth century began, Polish feelings not just about France but about the United States and Britain became ambiguous. These were 'free' countries in which - France especially - Poles felt at home. At the same time, Poles came to realise that these governments would offer their country little more than sympathy and applause. The Poles felt themselves to be culturally part of 'the Christian West', but the west did not reciprocate - would, indeed, betray Poland for the sake of a quiet life. As a result, attitudes towards the west became the queer compound they still remain: yearning admiration combined with sardonic mistrust. The Second World War, which left most Poles with a sense that they had been betrayed and abandoned by their Allies in the West, strongly reinforced this trauma.
After nearly two centuries of intermittent persecution the Catholic Church in Poland has emerged more influential in civil society than in almost any other country in the world. Well over three-quarters of the population, including many members of the Polish United Workers' Party (the Communists) regard themselves as believers. At the same time, the Church itself in Poland is unusual in its attitudes. It is highly conservative over matters like abortion and contraception, but at the same time 'classless': a church of the people. It is intensely patriotic and often openly 'political', claiming a special right to act as the voice of popular opinion about anything from working conditions in factories to the curricula of universities.
This is the result of the Partitions, and especially of that 'Fourth Partition' of the Nazi occupation. After 1795, the Catholic Church became the main institution which preserved and defended Polish culture, language and identity against foreign oppression. The 'Black Madonna', the ancient icon of the Virgin which is kept in Poland's holiest shrine, the monastery at Częstochowa, became - with her sad, scarred face - the symbol of Poland's suffering and hope. Many priests and some bishops took part in the patriotic conspiracies and risings of the nineteenth century . As in Ireland under the English, the Catholic faith and the struggle for independence became fused and inseparable in the minds of the population. (...)
Lastly, the Partitions gave a special, mystical quality to Polish nationalism. 'Messianism', the idea of Poland as a new Christ, has been mentioned. With it went the idea - still voiced by Pope John Paul II - of the sanctity of a nation. Polish Catholics talk as if God created Man in three concentric circles: the individual, the family, and the nation. Any earthly ruler who raises his hand against the independence of a free nation is violating God's law as plainly as a ruler who destroys the rights and the moral independence of a single man or woman. This is why this Polish Pope kisses the ground of each nation that he visits, and why Poles consider their struggles for justice and independence not only as a political cause but also as a moral crusade.
In the first half of the nineteenth century, Polish independence had been high in the priorities of European liberalism. Revolutions then were 'national' revolutions, the liberation of peoples from an 'imernational' league of reactionary Popes, Emperors and Kings. France, above all, had given moral support to the Polish cause, and had welcomed the Polish exiles after the failed insurrection of 1830 - 31; they were given state pensions corresponding to their rank. Even in Germany, a young revolutionary generation had given its heart to the Poles as the bravest fighters in the struggle for national liberty and constitutional government. But after the revolutionary wave of 1848, in which Polish exiles fought on the barricades in France, Italy and Germany, in Prague, Vienna and in the tremendous national uprising in Hungary , the climate slowly changed. The surge of 1848 failed to overthrow the systems in Austria and Prussia, and did not touch Russia. Germans, faced in 1848 with the threat that Polish independence would mean the partial dismemberment of Prussia, withdrew their sympathy.
By 1900, a 'realistic'
assessment of Polish
only be discouraging. Prussia had become the controlling element in a
Empire. Russia had begun to industrialise, enforcing an even more
and repressive regime on its dominions. The Habsburg Empire had become
a 'dual monarchy' of Austria-Hungary in 1867, but attempts by Galicia,
the Polish province under Austrian control, to win an autonomous status
like that of Hungary had been weak and unsuccessful.
In the Polish lands themselves, there were signs that the old cause of independence was beginning to disintegrate. Industrial capitalism, developing most rapidly in the Russian partition, established its markets and its finance within the separate framework of the three empires, and - even where its owners were Polish - saw its interests in gradual change and reform rather than in the violent upheaval of national revolution.
But what was it, anyway, that Polish patriots wished to restore? This was not a simple question. Poland had not been an island, but a multinational state with no natural boundaries except the Baltic Sea to the north and the mountain wall of the Carpathians in the south. In its 800 years of existence, ending with the Third Partition in 1795, its frontiers had shifted all over the map of eastern Europe. To demand the 'restoration of Poland' was to meet the question:'Which Poland, of what kind?'
Two elements had dominated most of Polish history. One was the relationship between Poland and Lithuania, the huge and more primitive dukedom to the north-east which remained pagan until the end of the fourteenth century. The second was the exceptionally strong position of the Polish nobility and gentry, which became the dominant class in society in the late Middle Ages and which prevented the development of an absolute monarchy.
弥 格的《中国植物志》从许多方面来说，都是值得注意的。这是欧洲发表的第一部关于远东和东南亚大自然的著作。有些学者认为，卜弥格是第一个采用“植物志”这 个名称的科学家。它对中国的植物（和动物）的介绍和其中的插图，却是欧洲将近一百年来人们所知道的关于中国动植物的仅有的一份资料，而且它的内容涉及面很 广。后来一些热衷于编撰普及读物的人曾多次翻印过它，还有一些到过中国也了解中国的学者也利用过这份资料。
在 医药学领域，卜弥格曾在故乡担任过王室御医，对医药学颇有研究，来华后以深厚的西学理论来探讨中国的传统医学，颇有建树。其著作《中国医药概说》，收录中 药若干种，并附木版、铜版插图，此书现藏法国巴黎国立图书馆。《中国诊脉秘法》介绍了魏晋时期著名医学家王叔和的《脉经》，以及中国医学看舌苔的察病方 式，曾引起欧洲文化界的注意，后被译为欧洲多种文字刊行，此书现藏大英博物馆。
作为一个旅行家和渊博的学者，卜弥格 在他的一生中不仅到过中国，而且也曾多次到过非洲、印度和东南亚各国，通过对这些地方长时期的考察和研究，他撰写了大量有关这些国家，特别是中国古代的动 植物、矿物、医学、历史、地理、人种学、哲学、语言学和人民生活习俗等的具有很高科学价值的著作。虽然这些著作在他生前和身后很少得到出版，有不少散佚， 有的甚至被人剽窃、篡改或者冒名顶替地发表，使得他在中西文化交流史上所做的贡献鲜为人知，但是它们仍对后世产生了深远的影响，卜弥格也因此被誉为波兰的 马可·波罗。
Works2. "Flora of China."
The Atlas of China
Latin Mappa Imperii Sinarum
The flora of China
Latin: Flora Sinensis
is one of the first European natural history books about China, published in Vienna in 1656
Of the survey of Chinese medicine
Latin: Specimen Medicinae Sinicae, sive Opuscula Medica ad Mentem Sinensium, Edidit Andreas Cleyer
The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse
Latin: Clavis Medica ad Chinarum Doctrinam de Pulsibus, autore Michaelo Boymo.
A manuscript on pulse lore written by the Polish father Michael Boym (1612-1659) was “lost” in Batavia in 1653. A French manuscript about “the secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse”, probably written in Canton (Guangdong) during the 1660s, was printed in Grenoble in 1671, but remained almost unnoticed. more
In the field of plants and animals, Boym's Latin book "Flora of China," published in 1656 in Vienna, the book contains a number of Chinese species of flowers and rare animals, marked with the Chinese name, along with 23 illustrations.
This is the first released in Europe on the Far East and Southeast Asia works of nature. Some scholars believe that Boym is the first use of "Flora" is the name of the scientist. Its Chinese plant (and animal) the introduction and one of the illustrations, but it is nearly a hundred years the people of Europe know about the Chinese flora and fauna of an information only, and its wide-ranging content. Later, some interested in the preparation of popular books were reprinted many times over it, and some have been to China but also understand Chinese scholars also made use of this information.
"Flora of China" was published and the Far East than in some other discussion of the writings of early Southeast Asian plants for decades. In Europe, regardless of the 17th century or 18th century, not a botanist can do as Boym, as in China, according to their own field trips and experience, written and published something.
3. "A Summary of Chinese Medicine", "The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse"
In the field of medicine, Boym has served as royal physician in his hometown of medicine who has studied, after the deep Western China to explore the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, many achievements. His book, "A Summary of Chinese Medicine", contains several kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, along with woodblock, copperplate illustrations, this book is Tibetan National Library in Paris, France. "The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse" describes the famous physician Wang Shu, and Wei-Jin period of "Pulse" and see the tongue of the Chinese medicine way police disease, has attracted the attention of the cultural sector in Europe, after being translated into many languages in Europe published, the book now in the possession of the British Museum.
Third, the academic evaluation as a traveler and profound scholar, Boym in his life not only to China, and has repeatedly been to Africa, India and Southeast Asian countries, through a long period of these places study and research, he has written extensively about these countries, especially China ancient plants and animals, minerals, medicine, history, geography, ethnology, philosophy, linguistics and customs of other people's lives with a high scientific value of the book. Although these works during his lifetime, and behind seldom published, many Sanyi, some even being plagiarism, tampering, or impersonation to publish, making his contribution to the history of cultural exchange between the little-known, but they still had a profound impact on future generations, Boym therefore known as the Marco Polo in Poland.
January 8, 1894 – August 14, 1941
St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe was born in Zduńska Wola, in Russian Occupied Poland. He was baptized Raymond at the Parish Church. Already proficient in virtue, the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to him in 1906 A. D., about the time of his first communion.
She offered him the graces of virginity and martyrdom and asked him which he wanted. Filled with zeal, he begged for both, and was filled thereafter with the most ardent desire to love and serve this Immaculate Queen.
He joined the Order of Friars Minor Conventual at Lvov in Austrian Occupied Poland, where he took the name Maximilian, and after finishing preliminary studies he was sent to the International Seraphic College in Rome to pursue doctorates in philosophy and theology.
In 1917 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the conversion of Alphonse Ratisbon, renowned anti-Catholic and agnostic of Jewish lineage, St. Maximilian was moved by divine grace to found a pious association of the faithful known as the Militia of the Immaculate .
The Militia was to be a loosely organized tool in the hands of the Immaculate Mediatrix for the conversion and sanctification of non-Catholics, especially those inimical to the Church. Its members consecrated themselves to the Blessed Virgin Mary, invoked Her daily for the conversion of sinners, and strove by every licit means to build up the Kingdom of the Sacred Heart throughout the world.
Ordained to the priesthood in 1918, St. Maximilian returned to Poland to teach Church History in Cracow, where he organized the first group of the Militia outside of Italy. Because of ill health he was freed to devote his time exclusively to the promotion of the Militia, whereupon he founded the "Knight of the Immaculate," a monthly Roman Catholic Magazine promoting the knowledge, love and service of the Immaculate Virgin, in the conversion of all souls to Christ Our Lord.
The phenomenal growth of this apostolate led to the foundation of the first city of the Immaculate, Niepokalanow in 1929. This was a friary of Franciscan priests and brothers engaged in the use of all kinds of modern equipment so as to promote via the mass media the Militia through all parts of Poland.
St. Maximilian, heeding the call of the Holy
Father to all religious, to come to the aid of the missionary efforts
of the universal Church, volunteered to go to the Orient.
た。Between 1930 and 1936 he took a series of missions to Japan, where he
founded a monastery at the outskirts of Nagasaki, a
Japanese paper and a seminary. Mugenzai
no Sono (the
Garden of the Immaculate), the monastery he founded remains prominent
in the Roman Catholic Church in Japan. Kolbe decided to build the
monastery on a mountain side that, according to folk beliefs[citation
needed], was not the side best suited to be in harmony with nature.
When the atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Kolbe's monastery was
saved because the blast of the bomb hit the other side of the mountain,
which took the main force of the blast. Had Kolbe built the monastery
on the preferred side of mountain as he was advised, his work and all
of his fellow friars would have been destroyed.
St. Maximilian returned to Niepokalanow, as it spiritual father, in 1936 and under his able direction the number of the friars there grew above 900 in the months preceding World War II. Publishing apostolate was producing 1,000,000 magazines monthly as well all 125,000 copies of a daily paper for the 1,000,000 members of the Militia worldwide.
After the invasion of Poland by the German Wermacht in September of 1939, the friars dispersed and Niepokalanow was ransacked. St. Maximilian and about 40 others were taken to holding camps, first in Germany, and later in Poland. By the mercy of the Immaculate they were released and allow to return home on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the same year.
During the war the friars turned to caring for about 5,000 Jewish refugees of the Poznan district as well as providing a repair shop for the farming machinery of the locale.
To incriminate St. Maximilian, the German Gestapo permitted one final printing of the "Knight of the Immaculte" in December of 1940. On 17 February 1941, they came to Niepokalanow and arrested St. Maximlian. He was taken to Pawiak Prision in German Occupied Warsaw, Poland, and on 28 May was transferred to Auschwitz as prisoner #16670.
Over the entrance gate of this concentration camp was a sign in German, ARBEIT MACHT FREI ("Work makes free!"). In reality, upon entering the prisoners were told that all Jews had the right to live only two weeks, Roman Catholic priests 1 month.
At the German Death Camp Auschwitz (der Konzentrationslager des Deutschen Reichs, Vernichtungslager Auschwitz) Roman Catholics were put to death along with persons of Jewish lineage. The objective of Hitler, in his hatred for Jesus Christ, was both to remove all witness to the truth of the original revelation of the God of Israel (the Jewish nation), as well as all who came to believe in Him in His Incarnation by Mary (Roman Catholics).
Thus, St. Maximilian, Knight of the Immaculate Virgin, was placed by Divine Providence at the very center of the ideologic and spiritual conflict of the century, and was destined by God to be the sign of contradiction to a nation given over to diabolic hatred of God and His people.
St. Maximilian, in response to the vicious hatred and brutality of the prison guards, was ever obedient, meek, and forgiving. He gave counsel to all his fellow prisoners "Trust in the Immaculate!" "Forgive!" "Love your enemies and pray for your persecutors!" He was noted for his generosity in surrendering his food despite the ravages of starvation that he suffered, for always going to the end of the line of the infirmary, despite the acute tuberculosis afflicting him.
In the end, by the maternal mediation of the Virgin
received the grace to be intimately conformed to Christ in death.
Pope Paul VI beatified St. Maximilian in 1973 and Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1982 as a martyr of charity.
St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe is the patron saint of drug
political prisoners, families, journalists, prisoners, amateur radio
and the pro-life movement. Pope John Paul II declared him "The Patron
Saint of Our Difficult Century".
St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe's life and work continues today in the religious institutes of the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate, the Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate, at the Academy of the Immaculate, and in the movement known as the Mission of the Immaculate Mediatrix.
This document is part of the Home Page of St. Francis of Assisi maintained by the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate.
The Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate are a Roman
Religious Institute of solemn vows headquartered at Benevento, Italy.
Their Home Page is maintained from the Marian Friary of Our Lady Queen
of the Seraphic Order, New Bedford, MA, United States of America.
Eternal Word Television Network
February 16, 2011
Miracle of Our Lady of Akita
CATHOLIC MORAL TRUTH 秋田の聖母マリア
Eurocrats target Poland
By Paul Belien - Last Thursday, Viscount Etienne Davignon, a Belgian who is the chairman of the secretive Bilderberg Group, celebrated his 75th birthday. Mr. Davignon is a former vice president of the European Commission and the author of the 1970 "Davignon Report" that laid the foundations for a common European foreign policy. In the Viscount's honor a conference about the future of the European Union was held in the prestigious Egmont Palace in Brussels. One of the speakers was the wealthy anti-Bush activist George Soros, another was Daniel Cohn-Bendit, an erstwhile campus revolutionary during the 1968 Paris student riots, who is currently a German member of the European Parliament for the Green Party.
Mr. Soros opined that the EU incarnates the "open society." Mr. Cohn-Bendit advocated that the EU expel member states that are "not European enough." Countries which Europe should throw out because they hamper the EU's aim of transforming itself into a federal superstate are the United Kingdom and Poland. Mr. Davignon reiterated Mr. Cohn-Bendit's position, albeit in a more diplomatic way. Europe should debate its future "without shunning taboos" by pondering "whether countries that systematically thwart European integration should not be ousted."
The so-called Eurocrats dislike the British because the latter believe democracy means that the people decide through their national parliaments. The British oppose technocrats, like Mr. Davignon and his ilk in the unelected EU bureaucracy, who impose trans-European policies that bypass all national legislatures. But what have to Poles done to antagonize the Eurocrats? Today is the "European day against the death penalty." The EU wanted to inaugurate the event with a common European declaration against capital punishment. Poland thwarted this by refusing to sign the declaration because the EU did not condemn abortion and euthanasia as well. Last month, during an EU meeting on the death penalty, the Polish justice minister confronted his Danish colleague with Denmark's annual 15,000 abortions and the latter — a member of the Danish Conservative Party — got so angry that she left the room, slamming the door.
Other countries, such as Belgium and Portugal, accuse Poland of "immoral and unworthy behaviour" by daring to compare abortion and euthanasia to the death penalty. Richard Howitt, a British Labor politician and the vice president of the European Parliament's human rights subcommittee, said that Poland's refusal to reject the death penalty brings into question its commitment to European values.
The Poles are used to being lectured by the Eurocrats in Brussels. Last April, the European Parliament accused Poland of 'homophobia" because it does not want to include homosexuality in the school curriculum. Last May, the European Court of Human Rights found Poland guilty of violating human rights because it banned a "gay pride" parade in Warsaw. Last year, the European Commission threatened to deprive Warsaw of its voting rights in the European institutions if it remained in "serious breach of its obligations on human rights."
The Poles, however, are not easily intimidated. Poland's conservative government has made a farce of Polish internal politics, ending in disgraceful collapse, but it did not shy away from standing up to Brussels. Next week the EU wants to finalize the Reform Treaty, which it badly needs in order to replace the so-called "European Constitution" which was rejected in 2005 by France and the Netherlands. Poland has announced its intention to join Britain in opting out from the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights, which is part of the Reform Treaty.
The refusal of the Poles has angered the EU elites as never before. The latter realize that the position of Warsaw has more to do with the Polish people than with the current government's stubbornness in view of the Oct. 21 Polish elections.While secularism is the EU's prevailing ideology, the Poles keep referring to Europe's Christian heritage. Even if the government of Prime Minister Jaroslaw Kaczynski loses the elections, the Eurocrats are likely to be confronted again and again with a people that has escaped Europe's secularization process.
Poland will play an increasingly prominent role in the next decades, if only because it is one of the few European countries with surging birth rates. In 2006, for the first time in ten years, Poland had a positive natural growth, with 374,000 newborn babies — a rise of 10 percent compared to the previous year. This year will be even better. Mr. Soros may think that the EU incarnates an "open society," but Poland's openness to new life proves that it is one of the few open societies in Europe.
Paul Belien is editor of the Brussels Journal and an adjunct fellow of the Hudson Institute.
EU lawyers say no to Poland's biotech ban
BRUSSELS (Reuters) -
stopped Poland's move to ban trade and plantings of genetically
(GMO) seeds, saying it had no scientific justification, the EU's
Journal said on Monday.
The Telegraph, October 1, 2009
Vatican issues Lisbon Treaty warning to Irish voters
The Vatican has made an unexpected last-minute intervention on the eve of Ireland's Lisbon Treaty referendum with a warning the European Union threatens the country's "identity, traditions and history".
As Irish voters go the polls for a second time on the treaty, "No" campaigners have seized on comments made by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Vatican Secretary of State, during the Pope's visit to the Czech Republic.
The comments followed unhappiness in the Vatican that the EU refused to recognise Europe's Christian heritage in the text of the Lisbon Treaty.
The EU has also upset Catholics in the past by ruling abortion provision should be treated as a "medical service" no different from any other treatment.
"Individual European countries have their own identity. The EU prescribes its laws or views to them and they do not have to fit with their traditions and history. Some countries are logically resisting this – for example, Ireland," said Cardinal Bertone.
"If Europe recognised homosexual couples as equal to marriage, for example, it would go against its own history. And it would be right to stand against it. The Church wants to encourage states in this."
Coir, a Catholic group that has claimed that religious faith and Ireland's anti-abortion laws are under threat from the EU, welcomed the comments.
"We are very pleased that Cardinal Bertone has come out and said explicitly that the EU is imposing secular values on Ireland," said spokesman Brian Hickey. "It is because the EU has a secular agenda that we are resisting the Lisbon Treaty.
Noel Treanor, the Bishop of Down and Connor, last week lined up with mainstream political parties to tell churchgoers that they could vote for the Lisbon Treaty "without reserve and in good conscience".
But Declan Ganley, the leader of Libertas, which is campaigning for a No vote, said Cardinal Bertone represented the Church's true position.
"I welcome these comments and encourage all practicing Catholics to take them on board before they cast their ballots," he said.
The Irish are voting on the treaty for a second time after rejecting it in a referendum last June.
Brian Cowen, the Irish Prime Minister, has promised voters that he has secured "legal guarantees" from the EU that Ireland's traditional Catholic stance on the family and abortion will remain untouched.
"Europe has listened to the concerns of the Irish people as expressed by them in last year's vote," he said.
Daily Mail, October 6, 2009
So our 1,000 years of history ends like thisThe new European State finally exists and has given itself life – life of a rather Frankenstein sort, but life all the same.
It no longer needs to ask the permission of its member states to act. Ireland, for instance, will no longer be able even to hold a referendum on increased EU central powers.
Increasingly, the provinces of Europe, which until today were countries, will need its permission to exist at all.
For most of its members, accustomed to dictatorship, partition, subjugation, occupation, invasion and domination by bigger neighbours, this sort of thing will be familiar. In many ways it will be preferable.
In living memory, their frontier posts were demolished by sneering soldiers and their capitals forced to watch parades of other people’s tanks.
Now, the same frontier barriers are dismantled by unequal treaties, and their currencies replaced by the euro. Nobody dies, though much is lost.
The Telegraph, October 4, 2009
The result in Ireland shows that Europe's usurpers have succeeded
The deed is done. Ireland has been coerced at a moment of acute distress into accepting an EU treaty that emasculates the Irish Supreme Court and that voters have already rejected once.
VATICAN CITY, APRIL 2, 2005 (Zenit.org).- Born Karol Józef Wojtyla, John Paul II left his mark occupying the third longest pontificate in the history of the Church.
Young Karol was born in Wadowice, a small city 35 miles southwest of Krakow, May 18, 1920.
The second of two sons born to Karol Wojtyla and Emilia Kaczorowska, his small family would not witness his rise to the papacy. His mother died in 1929, his brother Edmund, a doctor, died in 1932 and his father, a non-commissioned army officer, died in 1941.
He made his First Holy Communion at age 9, and was confirmed at 18. Upon graduation from high school in Wadowice in 1938, he and his father moved to Krakow where Karol entered the Jagiellonian University to study literature and philosophy.
The Nazi occupation forces closed the university in 1939, and young Karol had to work in a quarry, and then in the Solvay chemical factory to earn his living and to avoid being deported to Germany.
In 1942, aware of his call to the priesthood, he began courses in the clandestine seminary of Krakow, run by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Krakow. At the same time, Karol Wojtyla was one of the pioneers of the "Rhapsodic Theatre," also clandestine.
After the Second World War, he continued his studies in the major seminary of Krakow, once it had re-opened, and in the faculty of theology of the Jagiellonian University, until his priestly ordination in Krakow on Nov. 1, 1946.
Soon after, Cardinal Sapieha sent him to Rome where he worked under the guidance of the French Dominican, Garrigou-Lagrange. He finished his doctorate in theology in 1948 with a thesis on the topic of faith in the works of St. John of the Cross. At that time, during his vacations, he exercised his pastoral ministry among the Polish immigrants of France, Belgium and Holland.
In 1948, he returned to Poland and was vicar of various parishes in Krakow as well as chaplain for the university students until 1951, when he took up again his studies on philosophy and theology. In 1953, he defended a thesis on the ethical system of Max Scheler at Lublin's Catholic University.
He later he became professor of moral theology and social ethics in the major seminary of Krakow and in the Faculty of Theology of Lublin.
On July 4, 1958, he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Krakow by Pope Pius XII, and was consecrated bishop Sept. 28, 1958.
On Jan. 13, 1964, he was nominated Archbishop of Krakow by Pope Paul VI, who made him a cardinal June 26, 1967.
Besides taking part in the Second Vatican Council with an important contribution to the elaboration of the constitution "Gaudium et spes," Cardinal Wojtyla participated in all the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops.
Since the start of his pontificate Oct. 16, 1978, Pope John Paul II has completed 104 pastoral visits outside of Italy, and 146 within Italy. As Bishop of Rome he has visited 317 of the 333 parishes.
His principal documents include 14 encyclicals, 15 apostolic exhortations, 11 apostolic constitutions and 45 apostolic letters.
The Pope has also published five books: "Crossing the Threshold of Hope" (October, 1994); "Gift and Mystery: On the 50th Anniversary of My Priestly Ordination" (November, 1996); "Roman Triptych – Meditations," a book of poems (March, 2003); "Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way" (May, 2004) and "Memory and Identity" (February, 2005).
John Paul II has presided at 147 beatification ceremonies, proclaiming 1,338 blesseds, and 51 canonization ceremonies, canonizing 482 saints. He has held 9 consistories in which he created 231 (+ 1 in pectore) cardinals. He has also convened six plenary meetings of the College of Cardinals.
The Holy Father has presided at 15 synods of bishops: six ordinary (1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001), one extraordinary (1985) and eight special (1980, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998(2) and 1999).
His contact with people has exceeded that of any other Pope. More than 17,600,000 pilgrims have participated in the more than 1,160 General Audiences held on Wednesdays, and more than 8 million pilgrims participate in the events of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 alone.
Nature 463, 43-48 (7 January 2010) | doi:10.1038/nature08623; Received 21 July 2009; Accepted 29 October 2009
Tetrapod tracks reset timing of four-legged evolution
A team of scientists from Warsaw University found the tetrapod tracks in the Zachelmie quarry in Poland’s Holy Cross Mountains. The rocks that bear the tracks are shallow-water carbonate deposits, from the Wojciechowice Formation, and have been dated to 395 million years old, from the Eifelian stage of the middle Devonian. more: EARTH, The American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA 22302---------------
Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland
Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki1, Piotr Szrek2,3, Katarzyna Narkiewicz3, Marek Narkiewicz3 & Per E. Ahlberg4
The fossil record of the earliest tetrapods (vertebrates with limbs rather than paired fins) consists of body fossils and trackways. The earliest body fossils of tetrapods date to the Late Devonian period (late Frasnian stage) and are preceded by transitional elpistostegids such as Panderichthys and Tiktaalik that still have paired fins. Claims of tetrapod trackways predating these body fossils have remained controversial with regard to both age and the identity of the track makers. Here we present well-preserved and securely dated tetrapod tracks from Polish marine tidal flat sediments of early Middle Devonian (Eifelian stage) age that are approximately 18 million years older than the earliest tetrapod body fossils and 10 million years earlier than the oldest elpistostegids. They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish–tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record.
Correspondence to: Per E. Ahlberg4 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to P.E.A. (Email: email@example.com).
Raymond L. Flynn, U. S. Ambassador, U. S. EMBASSY VATICAN. August 10, 1995:
Mr. Milun is one of many treasures Poland has given the world.
KOMITET HONOROWY I GOSCIE
J.E. ks. Biskup Tadeusz Poski
Dr Tadeusz Wrona
List Ambasadora Austriackiego
Der Osterreichische Botschafter
August 6, 2008
I would like to congratulate you for the organization of this international concert to honor the 32Sth anniversary of the victorious second Battle of Vienna. Furthennore, I send my warm greetings to all participants and guests and would like to wish you all a pleasant and joyful event, which considering the excellent selection of composers and pieces you will certainly have.
The second siege of Vienna in 1683 and the subsequent victory after the arrival of the relief army under the supreme command of the great Polish king Jan III. Sobieski is not just a landmark episode in Austrian and Polish history, but in European history as well. However, what is more important is the fact, that it was an example of truly lived solidarity among European nations, as they were understood at that time. Witnessing the distress of a fellow country in its struggle with a powerful rival, Jan III. Sobieski was not hesitating to render every possible assistance, be it at the risk of his own life to defend not just the then borders of Europe, but the European culture and its way of life. With his selfless deed Jan III. Sobieski acted as a true European, long before this expression saw light. The Austrian people and especially the citizens of Vienna have ever since been very grateful towards Jan III. Sobieski and still keep him in their hearts and minds.
Although the year 1683 was very important in Polish-Austrian relations the bonds linking the two countries together reach far back to the lSth and 16th century and have continuously been developed since, so that even though we don't share any common border anymore we still have this mutual understanding that we are "cultural neighbors". After the fall of the iron curtain, Poland and Austria joined the European concert of nations called EU and are once again fulfilling their historical responsibility as intennediary between the Western and Eastern parts of Europe. Together we aim for the reunification of our continent and struggle to secure the EU as an area of freedom and prosperity for our future generations in a globalised and multi-polar world. In this regard I would like to mention the endeavors of our friend and former rival Turkey to contribute to our common European project. To reach this goal we shall always bear in mind the deeds of king Sobieski and act in his spirit.
Polanie Publishing Co., Minneapolis, Minn., 1978
This is a very ancient hymn. Chronicles state that it was sung by the Polish Knights as they marched to the battlefield.
English version by Sister Mary Grace, H. F. N.,
Arr. Wł. Żeleński
Virgin all sinless and fairest, __
God's lauded Mother, sweet __ Mary!
In Thy Son's kingdom Mistress loving,
Mother immaculate, Mary! __
Give us ____ now, ___
Send us ____ now, ___
Kyrie eleison, Son Eternal,
As ___ our Savior
The new Covenant's Adam royal,
Mankind's true defender, loyal
Lead Thy children homeward,
There with angels triumph.
There rupture eternal,
Vision Bless'd Supernal,
There ecstacy endless.
Here below ___ we suffer
Satan's evil menace.
Loving Lord ___ and Savior, __
Lead Thy children homeward,
That with choirs of angels
They may sing Thy glory,
Hon'ring Vision Blessed.
Amen, amen, amen
amen, amen, amen,
This grant us, o Lord,
So we pray with one accord:
With Thy Hallowed place us.
God who held Poland Boże coś PolskęThis song became a national hymn in the period after the Uprising of 1830. Its singing was forbidden by the conquering powers and when the lyrics of Serdeczna Matko (Beloved Mother) were substituted for the same melody even as a religious song, it was forbidden. It is a beautioful, tender hymn.
Words by ks. Alojzy Feliński, English Version by Victoria Janda. K. Kurpiński, Arr. By L. Chojecki.
God who held Poland for so many ages,
In Your protection, glory, and great power,
Who gave Your wisdom to her bards and sages,
And gave Your own shield as her rightful dower.
Before for Your altars, we in supplication
Kneeling, implore You, free our land and nation.
Bring back to Poland ancient might and splendor,
And fruitful blessings to fields and meadows;
Be once again our Father, just, yet tender,
Deliver us from out our dire shadows.
Before for Your altars, we in supplication
Kneeling, implore You, free our land and nation.
Highland song Góralu, czy ci nie żal
Tatra Mts Górol ci ja, górol
W POLSCE JANA MATEJKI
No roots, no growth
"the quixotic and controversial deputy minister of health,
government sanitary inspector, and chief environmental health officer,
Zbigniew Halat MD is engaged in a personal crusade
to shake the health service out of the spiritual atrophy
induced by 45 years of communism.
Hard working, self reliant, aggressive, and abrasively masculine,
this man of Promethean energies put me in mind
of a nineteenth century northern mill owner"
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland,
Too many advisers, not enough aid, British Medical Journal, May 30, 1992
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland,
Pollution most foul, British Medical Journal, June 6, 1992
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland,
Post-totalitarian medicine, British Medical Journal, June 13, 1992
MOVE FOR HEALTH
and stand up for their beliefs.
US Ambassador to Poland
Victor Ashe, Sept 24, 2008
END OF PART 1
ALPHABETIC INDEX OF CONTENTS
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