EPISTULA AD EMUM P.D. ADAMUM STEPHANUM TIT. S. MARIAE NOVAE S.R.E. PRESBYTERUM CARDINALEM SAPIEHA, ARCHIEPISCOPUM CRACOVIENSEM, ATQUE CETEROS EXCMOS PP. DD. POLONIAE ARCHIEPISCOPOS, EPISCOPOS LOCORUMQUE ORDINARIOS.
die I mensis Septembris anno MDCCCCXXXXIX
(Decennium dum expletur...)
Poloniae fastos recensenti, qui gloriae et afflictationis granditate saepenumero praestant, torrentis modo fletus et sanguis varias inter vicissitudines rerum terram vestram madefacere videntur; hic vorago dolorum, illic culmina victoriae, religionis, litterarum, ingenuarum artium tantis irradiata fulgoribus. Unum tantum Polonia non novit: a Iesu Christo et ab Eius Ecclesia desciscere
Apostolic Letter of Pope Pius XII to the bishops of Poland about the suffering of the Polish People
September 1, 1949
(Decennium dum expletur...)
Poland's history, full of glory and often misery, in the eyes of researchers seem to be similar to a river of tears and blood, spraying down your variation among various things: here an abyss of pain, where the peaks of victory, made radiant by great flashes of culture. One only Poland did not know: deviation from Christ the King and His Church. Your glory, your emblem of nobility is to act boldly, to suffer bravely, to trust unwaveringly, to achieve what is great.
ks. bp. Antoniego Pacyfika Dydycza, ordynariusza drohiczyńskiego, wygłoszona podczas
ogólnopolskiej manifestacji w obronie Telewizji Trwam.
"...Polska minionych wieków, Polska dzisiaj i Polska jutra jest zawsze ta sama, zawsze z tymi samymi dążeniami, z takim samym programem. Ta jedność w czasie jest dla nas potrzebna. Polska zawsze była jedną i będzie taką. Taką wizję nakreślił Sługa Boży Papież Pius XII w Liście do nas z dnia 1 IX 1949 r. przesłanym na ręce biskupów polskich: "Dzieje Polski, pełne częstokroć chwały i nieszczęść, oczom badacza zdają się być podobne do potoku łez i krwi, zraszającego ziemię waszą pośród przeróżnej zmienności rzeczy: tu otchłań bólu, tam szczyty zwycięstwa, opromienione wspaniałymi blaskami kultury. Jednego tylko Polska nie znała: odstępstwa od Chrystusa Króla i Jego Kościoła. Chwałą Waszą, godłem szlachectwa Waszego jest działać odważnie, cierpieć mężnie, ufać niezachwianie, osiągać to, co wielkie. pełny tekst homilii
is a very strange country, in which I always feel at home. So said the
French director Claude Lanzmann, who spent a long time filming in the
remote Polish countryside. Many foreigners agree with him, as they
leave a land which - in spite of their affection for it - they find
bizarre, even exotic, in its past and present. But what exactly is this
'strangeness'?. Too much emphasis on the oddity of Poland becomes
destructive, hiding a nation under a crust of caricature. And in the
end it is very misleading. In important ways, Poland - one of the older
European states - has been more 'normal' than its younger neighbours.
This is specially true of its history . For hundreds of years, Poland
was an open, tolerant country with many races and religions. The power
of the kings was limited by charters and agreements, and great matters
were frequently decided by debates and votes. But on either side of it
there slowly grew up the more primitive states of Prussia (a military
kingdom demanding rigid obedience from its subjects) and Russia, with
its tradition of hopeless servility before God-given tyrants. Between
these neighbours an enlightened and progressive Poland, in many ways
having more in common with western Europe, tried but eventually failed
to survive.The modern Polish novelist Kazimierz Brandys once divided
the world into countries with corpses under the floorboards - including
Germany and Russia - 'and those like France and Poland which have no
corpses to hide'. When a visitor commented that Poland was an abnormal
country, he retorted: 'It is a perfectly normal country between two
abnormal ones'. Brandys points out that for three hundred years,
between the Renaissance and the Partitions which abolished Polish
independence, Poland functioned without great upheavals, stable at a
time when Europe was staggered by peasant revolts, the Inquisition,
dynastic wars, religious wars, the Hundred Years War, the Thirty Years
Who knows, perhaps it was Europe that was sick, all Europe with the exception of Poland?
"The Struggles for Poland" by Neal Ascherson
Poland faithful to her Christian heritage Andrzej Duda, President of Poland, April 15, 2016: Poland is and will remain true to her Christian heritage. For it is in this heritage that we have a well-tested, strong foundation for the future. King Sigismund III Vasa Column in Warsaw. Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat(...)
President of Poland Andrzej Duda, The President's Speech, Friday, 15 April 2016, National Assembly’s Session on the Occasion of the Celebration of the 1050th Anniversary of the Baptism of Poland here
The Baptism of Duke Mieszko I is the most important event in the entire history of the Polish state and nation. I do not say it was, I say it is for the decision taken by our first historical ruler had predetermined the whole future to come for our country. Our Christian legacy continues to shape the destinies of Poland and of each and every one of us, Polish people, until this very day. This is what Holy Father John Paul II had in mind when he observed: ‘Without Christ, one cannot comprehend the history of Poland’.
Tradition has it that the baptism of the ruler of the Polan people most likely took place on the Holy Saturday of 14 April 966. And it was already at that point that Poland was born. From the baptismal waters it emerged for a new Christian life. It was born for the world, emerging from the prehistoric era and entering the arena of European history. It was also born for its own sake: as a national and political community, since the adoption of the Latin rite at baptism defined our Polish identity. From that time on, we started thinking and speaking of ourselves as ‘we, the Poles’.
Back then, we said ‘yes’ to freedom and self-determination. We demonstrated that we were capable of building our nation and our own state solicitous about its welfare. To build it, defend it and die for it. It was not predetermined that the work would succeed, that a community would be formed. And yet, the work was crowned with success. A community was successfully built on a foundation of faith which has ever since inextricably grown into our identity, often featuring in our history as the principal and final shield of freedom and solidarity. By being baptized our forefathers defined the core around which the magnificent Polish nation would then be formed. And in the darkest moments, when our enemies tried to destroy the Church in order to bring down the groundwork of our Polish identity, the Polish people would defy the object and would crowd in temples in pursuit of their sense of community, and thus testifying to the timeless wisdom of the decision once taken by our forefathers.
Therefore, 966 is the most important landmark in our history. In our solemn ceremony today we celebrate the 1050th anniversary of ‘the birth’ of our nation and our Homeland. It is a signal honour and a great joy to have us all gathered here in Poznań, the seat of the first bishopric on Polish soil; to have the Republic's highest authorities, the Episcopate and clergy of the Catholic Church and other Christian Communities reunited with representatives of many friendly countries from Europe and the world to inaugurate the celebration of this venerable jubilee. I cordially thank all our distinguished and most welcome guests for coming.
This is a great celebration time of the ‘Polish spirit’, which is the source of our pride and joy. It will carry on into coming months to spread all over the country. It will culminate in the first ever visit to Poland by Pope Francis and the World Youth Days. I trust that thanks to the vast efforts made by the organizers, thanks to active engagement of thousands of volunteers, this will be an occasion for unsurpassed spiritual experience.
Commencing these jubilee celebrations, we turn our minds to the previous occasion of the millennial celebration of the Baptism of Poland in 1966. This was an extraordinary experience for our whole community and a unique event of the kind in Central and Eastern Europe.
We, the Polish people, had been then struggling for 27 years under a regime imposed on us first by German occupying forces, then by communists after the war. Equally the former and the latter worked to weaken and break the bond between our nation and the Church. They realized that this way they would shake the very foundations of our community, that a nation deprived of its spiritual anchorage would be easily remodelled into enslaved masses. To this end, the Nazis applied bloody terror. The communists in power after the war sought to make the Polish people turn away from Christianity. They promoted an atheist ideology, persecuted priests and the faithful alike. They even went as far as to imprison the Primate of Poland.
And in those days, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński was inspired with the idea to protect the Polish and Christian identity of the nation against indoctrination and repression by organizing a great National Retreat. It was ushered in by the 1956 Jasna Góra Oaths of the Polish Nation, a direct reference to the oaths made by King John II Casimir in Lvov 300 years earlier. Then, a nine-year novena followed to prepare the Polish people for the millennial celebrations.
Fifty years ago, in April 1966, the millennial celebrations of the Baptism of Poland began. On 3 May, on the green at the Jasna Góra Sanctuary 250 000 of the faithful took part in a commemoration. The celebrations lasted a full year, bringing together countless numbers of Polish people. Moreover, the jubilee was celebrated among more than 50 000 of expatriate Poles in London and Chicago, Rome and Paris, even in remote Australia and New Zealand.
One can safely claim that thanks to the initiative of the Primate of the Millennium, the entire Polish nation reinforced its bond to its Christian heritage. This happened in spite of the obstacles mounted by the communist regime who for instance ‘arrested’ a copy of the icon of Our Lady of Jasna Góra, provoked the faithful to clash with the police, tried to bloc access to the millennium celebrations and to disturb their course, and finally organized rival 1st millennium of the Polish state celebrations, forcing whole crews of factories and institutions to participate.
The 1966 millennial celebrations and the particular role played by the Primate of the Millennium, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, revealed the timeless significance of the Baptism of Mieszko I and the uniting power of Christianity for our community. The nation rejected the false slogan: ‘The Polish People’s Republic is the crowning glory of the millennium of our state’. Nor were the Polish people misled by the propaganda initiative to build one thousand schools to commemorate our millennium, this in spite of the fact that it produced valid and good results for the development of education and improvement of teaching conditions. The Poles opted for the faithfulness to the Church, authentic love of their Homeland and hope for regaining of freedom. The authority of the bishops and priests was reinforced. The life’s work of Primate Wyszyński paved the way for the pontificate of the Holy Father John Paul II and for the peaceful ‘Solidarity’ revolution.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The Millennium had lent us, Poles, a sense of sovereignty in its most fundamental dimension: as free people and free citizens. Many initiatives taken by parish communities in defence of their priests and churches throughout the duration of the People's Republic of Poland, full commitment of the faithful who kept illegally building new churches in defiance of the authorities, spontaneous efforts to get organized and mass participation in the celebrations from 1956 to 1966, all of this proved that there is a massive power to be unleashed in our community, our power whose origins lie in our shared national and Christian identity. The power which manifested itself on a number of occasions in our history in recent centuries, which helped us to weather the most trying experiences: the loss of civil liberties and of an independent state, the attempts to denationalise and de-Christianise our people. The power which carried us through confrontation with our enemies, partitioning powers, occupying forces and led us to win and get the upper hand as even stronger and more united a nation.
We have always taken and we will always take pride in this invincible national spirit. We can and are willing to draw on this great treasure of ours. It is also a lesson for the future for us: that we, the Polish people, can accomplish great, momentous things, if only we work together in accordance with the values that unite us. The values that have their source in the unbreakable bond between the Polish spirit and its Christian roots.
A thousand and fifty years ago, Poland joined the Christian community of that era. She did so of her own accord. Aware of the benefits that this act would bring, including political benefits. Thanks to Duke Mieszko’s far-sighted decision Christianisation provided a powerful stimulus for Poland’s development. The state gained a stronger basis on which to build its security and sovereignty. Over time it became increasingly modern, more efficiently governed, more internally integrated.
The preachers of the Good News opened before the Polish people an enormous treasury of spiritual riches, promoting the Christian vision of man in our culture. Since the end of the 10th century, the Decalogue and the Gospel have become ever more deeply rooted in millions of hearts on the banks of the Warta and the Vistula, the Oder and the Bug, the Neman and the Dneper rivers. They have provided a motivation to build a better, more humane world. That is why our joining the domain of Christian civilization, in its Latin rite, represented a real breakthrough for us.
The three pillars of this civilization have also become the pillars of Polish identity and culture.
The first of the three pillars has been and remains Greek philosophy, or the love of wisdom. And that is the primacy of objective truth. Precise instruments for investigating and analysing reality. An immovable foundation for the development of all sciences to this very day.
The second pillar has been and remains Roman legal thought and government concept. The idea of the rule of law. The idea of a republic, i.e. a state that is a common good of the citizens that rule it. It is also the civic ethos, an ethos of privileges connected with responsibilities. These are principles improved and tested over the centuries, principles that provide the groundwork also for modern-day civil, criminal, procedural and national law.
The third pillar has been and remains the core of Christian thought: the Old and the New Testament, the Decalogue and the Gospel. This novel, revolutionary vision of humanity as a family, as a community of brothers and sisters equal before the Father and His moral law. It is also a call for peace, for repentance for any evil done and for forgiveness for any wrongdoing one has suffered. An imperative to give priority to the human person over objects, over mundane advantages and the desire for possession. The protection of the weaker ones, an appeal for solidarity in helping the needy and the brilliant subsidiarity principle. It is the recognition of the dignity of women and the contribution made by them to the lives of societies in various fields. The idea of government and superiority as service and the belief that rulers, too, are subject to moral judgment. Christianity is also a unique concept of the separation between the sacred and the profane, that which is divine and that which belongs to Caesar. The idea of autonomy, but at the same time of cooperation between the secular and spiritual authorities. These are also institutions such as the university and the local school, the hospital and the orphanage. It is a new vision of military, medical and economic ethics. And, last but not least, the heights of art and genius, achieved by artists inspired by Christianity: visual artists, architects, musicians and poets.
Therefore, it should not come as a surprise to anyone that it is only in the circle of this particular civilization that ideas and phenomena such as the concept of inalienable human rights as every human’s birthright, constitutionalism, a democratic state of the rule of law, universal international law, workers’ and emancipation movements and the modern public debate ethos have appeared. All of them are deeply rooted in the Christian heritage.
Today, it is not only Athens, Rome and Jerusalem that define the scope of this civilization. Thanks to the efforts of the 30 generations of Poles, new important centres have been added to the map of Christianitas.
For example Gniezno, where the relics of St. Adalbert, who spread the faith with his word and not with the sword, repose.
Toruń and Frombork, cities connected with Nicolaus Copernicus, the chancellor of the Warmia chapter, and the author of one of the greatest breakthroughs in the history of human thought.
Cracow, the city of St. Bishop Stanislaus of Szczepanow, a brave proponent of the idea of moral duties of public authorities, the city of the Cracow Academy and of the Reverend Paweł Włodkowic (Paulus Vladimiri), one of the most outstanding theoreticians of religious tolerance. It is the Cracow of Karol Wojtyła, Saint Pope John Paul II, who ushered the Church into the third millennium in the full sense of the term.
Poznań, the bishopric capital of Bishop Wawrzyniec Goślicki, a 16th-century author of original conceptions of government, which became a source of inspiration for the authors of the American Constitution and numerous other opponents of monarchic lawlessness.
Brześć Litewski (Brest-Litovsk), the place where an ecclesiastical union was contracted, one of the most important efforts at reconciling the Christian West and the Christian East.
Częstochowa, the city one needs to visit in order to appreciate the special status and respect that women enjoy in Poland. The city where Bogurodzica, The Mother of God, a hymn regarded as the first national anthem of Poland, continues to be sung before the icon of Our Lady of Jasna Góra, Poland’s most venerated cult object.
Warsaw, the capital of a state without stakes and religious wars. The city where the Sejm of the Polish Commonwealth enacted the Confederation of Warsaw, the first legislative act in the world to guarantee universal religious tolerance. This is Warsaw, the seat of King John III Sobieski, the victor of the battle of Vienna, and the city on the outskirts of which an invasion of communist barbarism against Europe was stopped in 1920.
These are hundreds of localities, especially in Poland’s old eastern Borderland region, where ethnic and religious minorities used to live peacefully side by side.
Last but not least, these are localities connected to the lives and achievements of our numerous compatriots, world-famous artists, men and women of letters, scholars and inventors, individuals who have impressively paid back a debt of gratitude to the culture which had shaped them.
Christian civilization, for the past 1050 years co-created and defended with great dedication by the Polish people, is the result of titanic work and struggle of millions of people, an effect of numerous inquiries and experiments, historical trials and errors. It is a mature, universal creation, with a powerful impact on humanity as a whole.
It is not a fossil. It keeps organically evolving. It needs its young leaves and sprouts just as much as it needs its hidden roots. It also needs a trunk to mediate between them, that is a natural synthesis of the old and the new.
A tree may be felled. One may poison its roots and watch it wither. This does not take a lot of effort or too much time. However, to plant a new tree and wait for it to grow and bring fruit is a long process.
That is why the price for destroying the foundations of our civilization and attempts to replace them with other concepts, incoherent and loosely sketched, has always been and will always be enormous suffering and devastation. This was most clearly demonstrated by the 20th century and its two ideological projects: communism and Nazism, with their horrible consequences.
The 21st century has quickly faced us with new, difficult challenges. In a global village, the natural rivalry between different civilization models has attained an unprecedented intensity.
In Poland and in Europe, debates are ongoing on how to address these new challenges. I personally believe that the thing to do in this situation is to trust the strength of our identity, to draw on the rich treasury of ideas, experiences and solutions developed in a combined mainstream of the two great traditions: the Greco-Roman and the Judeo-Christian ones.
They are what we should base our actions on.
Indeed, the primary responsibility of the President, the Senate, the Sejm and the Government of the Republic of Poland is solicitude for our present day. Solicitude to ensure a Poland and a Europe where the dignity, rights and aspirations of all citizens are respected and protected. Solicitude to ensure a Poland and a Europe where solidarity and a sense of community should take precedence over rivalry and a play of interests. However, solicitude to ensure a good tomorrow is an equally important task for us. Solicitude to ensure that our heritage of tolerance and openness, our freedom and our material as well as spiritual strength are preserved and allowed to grow further.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
We are gathered here together today. In the Poznań of the Piast dynasty, the cradle of our state and of our nation, the cradle of our community, on the 1050th anniversary of Mieszko’s baptism. We are here because we understand the responsibility that we shoulder. Our responsibility both towards history and towards the future generations of Poles.
In the eve of Poland’s accession to the European Union, Pope John Paul II pointed out that this was a great opportunity for our nation to enrich the West spiritually, the same West that once brought the Christian faith to us. Europe needs Poland, and Poland needs Europe, said the Holy Father. That is why, in paying tribute to our far-sighted predecessors of 1050 years ago, I would like to state most emphatically today that, following the guidance of our great compatriot, Poland is and will remain true to her Christian heritage. For it is in this heritage that we have a well-tested, strong foundation for the future.
President of the Republic of Poland
"In an age which is, beyond all else, materialistic, what can better entitle a people to distinction and homage than the facts that it worships the ideal, that its heroes are personifications of aspiration, and that its very faults are, in large measure, directly traceable to "visionary patriotism " and " artistic preoccupation "?It is the glory of the Polish people to hold aloft the torch of idealism in a materialistic age. While many a western nation is going to war over commerce; while the ears of the chancelleries are tuned to the tones of the stock-ticker, and the ambitions of the day run to the men who can amass the most gigantic fortunes, the Poles lavish all their national affections on a living word-master. In the national Sienkiewicz jubilee a couple of years ago they did for a mere creator of literature what the rest of the world is wont to reserve for "Napoleons of finance " ; for men who have defeated others with great slaughter, and for colossuses who have moulded empires out of the patrimony of other peoples. For four centuries Poland was the bulwark of Europe against the floods of barbarism from the East. That mysterious, fecund East, from which countless human hives have swarmed out over Europe, gave out these swarms in myriad, pitiless numbers, at frequent intervals from the 13th to the 17th century. Impelled by some unexplainable ethnic force, the barbarian tribes moved ever westward, until, on the banks of the Dwina, the Dniester, and the Vistula, they met the swords of the Poles. But for Polish valour, Western civilisation would have been blighted ; Christianity itself, perhaps, engulfed. Poland was the sentinel who kept watch on the eastern gate of Europe, while Latin civilisation, in the person of France, flowered and taught the world. " While my own dear France was the missionary of civilisation," said Victor Hugo, " Poland was its knight." The eastern frontier of the Commonwealth was, by its low, level, natural formation, particularly open to attack. Poland was essentially a land of plains, which, for centuries, were swept and desolated by vast, contending armies. Time and again the Mongols completely overran the Commonwealth. Twice these fierce nomads rolled in great waves over the entire country, and were checked only on the banks of the Vistula, beneath the very walls of Cracow.For this defence of Europe against the barbarism of the non-Christian East, Poland asked no contributions of troops, or money. She asked no thanks. The treatment she has actually received from Europe is one of the crimes of the ages.Poland upheld the Christian faith when most of the rest of Europe was sunk in petty wars and struggles for greed. She received the poor Jew when all the rest of the Christian world would have none of him. Her bosom was a refuge for the Hussites and emigrants of the Thirty Years' War. She has always accepted this as her role —to be the champion of the West against the East ; of culture against barbarism. With a religion and civilisation based on those of Rome, and a language strongly modified by Latin influences, she has been the outpost of Occidentalism against even the great mass of the Slav race itself, which is cast in a Byzantine mould.It must be admitted that this attitude was more the result of an impulsive generosity than the development of a conscious, logical will. It was a great virtue, but a virtue, alas, singularly favoured by the recklessness and love of glory characteristic of the national spirit. This was admitted in an eloquent memorial published by the Poles of this country at the time of the convocation of the first Hague Peace Conference. This document, however, rightly gloried in the "improvident generosity" of Poland. It said: "History proves that the Polish people were not believers in force or the use of destructive weapons to vindicate their rights. To the last moment of their political existence they looked with contempt upon all destructive weapons. They prized individual courage much higher. They attacked the enemy with sword in hand, abhorring those who hid in trenches under the protection of batteries. When the other nations of Europe relied mainly upon powerful artilleries for the success of their troops, Poland, too proud, and placing too high the honour of the military calling, looked with disdain upon those who were willing to kill and dared not expose themselves. In view of the greed of the neighbouring powers, this characteristic trait of our nation did not redound to our advantage. Nevertheless it existed, and was one of the brightest features of our history."Poland is, or rather was, a large and powerful nation with a territory greater than that of modern Germany, and for nearly a century her voice was authoritative in the councils of the continent Take down the map of Europe. Draw a line from Riga, on the Baltic Sea, to Dresden in Saxony. Draw another line from Dresden to the mouth of the Dniester River, on the Black Sea; another from the mouth of the Dniester to Smolensk, Russia, and a fourth from Smolensk back to Riga. You have enclosed the Commonwealth of Poland at its greatest extent—the country of Sienkiewicz.Before the partitions Posen, West Prussia, Galicia, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Kiev were Polish. In still earlier times, Bessarabia, Moldavia, Silesia, and Livonia belonged to the Polish crown. Even as late as 1772 Danzig (Gdansk) was a Polish seaport, and Kamieniec (near the modern Kishinev) the Polish defence against the Turks, while to the north and west Poland's frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga and to within the shadow of the Kremlin at Moscow. To-day Poland is a portion of three great European nations, Russia, Austria, arid Germany. She has long ceased to have a separate political existence, but her sons remain a distinct, individual and resistant people.
Luis E. Van Norman, Poland: 'The Knight Among Nations', 1907, 'Polska – rycerz wśród narodów', z przedmową Heleny Modrzejewskiej, 1908
POLAND : THE KNIGHT AMONG NATIONS, I POLAND'S ROLE IN HISTORY, full text here
No doubt the ultimate aim of Polish activity everywhere is the re-establishment of Poland as a national and political entity. The dream of every Polish patriot is to see a Poland arise, on the ashes of the past, stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea—a country 750 miles in length and almost as much in width, comprising 400,000 square miles, and with a population of thirty-five millions. This would embrace the modern Polish provinces of Prussia, up to within a short distance of Berlin, with half the Prussian shore of the Baltic, Galicia in Austria, and the whole of that portion of Russia which at one time, some of it three hundred years ago, formed a part of Poland at her greatest extent."
Po polsku tutaj: Biblioteka Dzieł Wyborowych. Polska jako Rycerz wśród narodów według Louis’a E. Van Normana, z przedmową Heleny Modrzejewskiej-Chłapowskiej. Część I, Warszawa, DRUK ED. NICZ i S-ka, NOWY-ŚWIAT 70.1908.
Victor Hugo about Poland's role as defensor of European Civilization
Two nations among all, for four centuries, have played a disinterested role in European civilization; these two nations are France and Poland. Note this, gentlemen: France dispelled darkness, Poland repelled barbarism; France spread ideas, Poland covered the border. The French people have been the missionaries of civilization in Europe; the Polish people have been its knight. If the Polish people had not accomplished their work, the French people would not have been able to accomplish their own. On a certain day, at a certain hour, before a formidable invasion of barbarism, Poland had Sobieski as Greece had had Leonidas.
Deux nations entre toutes, depuis quatre siècles, ont joué dans la civilisation européenne un rôle désintéressé ; ces deux nations sont la France et la Pologne. Notez ceci, messieurs : la France dissipait les ténèbres, la Pologne repoussait la barbarie ; la France répandait les idées, la Pologne couvrait la frontière. Le peuple français a été le missionnaire de la civilisation en Europe ; le peuple polonais en a été le chevalier. Si le peuple polonais n'avait pas accompli son oeuvre, le peuple français n'aurait pas pu accomplir la sienne. À un certain jour, à une certaine heure, devant une invasion formidable de la barbarie, la Pologne a eu Sobieski comme la Grèce avait eu Léonidas. Victor Hugo: Actes et paroles (Les 4 volumes): Nouvelle édition augmentée By Hugo, Victor; Chambre des Pairs 1845 — 1848, I. La Pologne, 19 mars 1846.
I judged the Poles by their enemies. And I found it was an almost unfailing truth that their enemies were the enemies of magnanimity and manhood. If a man loved slavery, if he loved usury, if he loved terrorism and all the trampled mire of materialistic politics, I have always found that he added to these affections the passion of a hatred of Poland. She could be judged in the light of that hatred; and the judgment has proved to be right. Gilbert K. Chesterton, British writer, in Introduction to Letters on Polish Affairs by Charles Sarolea (1922) “Osądzałem Polaków po tym, jakich mieli wrogów. Odkryłem właściwie niezawodną prawdę, że wrogowie Polski byli zarazem wrogami wielkoduszności i człowieczeństwa. Kiedy jakiś człowiek lubował się w niewolnictwie, kochał lichwiarstwo, miłował terroryzm i całe rozdeptane błoto materialistycznej polityki, to zawsze okazywało się, że do tych afektów dodawał on także pasję nienawiści do Polski. Mogła ona być osądzona w świetle tej nienawiści; a osąd okazał się słuszny..” Gilbert K. Chesterton, brytyjski pisarz, we wstępie do Listów o Sprawach Polskich Charlesa Sarolei (1922)
The first test of sanity is the recognition of reality. Gilbert K. Chesterton
The first effect of not believing in God, is that you lose your common sense. Gilbert K. Chesterton
We shall soon be in a world in which a man may be howled down for saying that two and two make four, in which people will persecute the heresy of calling a triangle a three-sided figure, and hang a man for maddening a mob with the news that grass is green. Gilbert K. Chesterton
Some say religion is the opium of the people. I should say irreligion is the opium of the people. I should say that, in every fact and phase of history, religion had been necessary as the stimulant of the people. Gilbert K. Chesterton
Fulton J. Sheen
Fulton J. Sheen
The Level of Woman = The Level of Civilization"To a great extent the level of any civilization is the level of its womanhood. When a man loves a woman, he has to become worthy of her. The higher her virtue, the more noble her character, the more devoted she is to truth, justice, goodness, the more a man has to aspire to be worthy of her. The history of civilization could actually be written in terms of the level of its women." Fulton J. Sheen: Life Is Worth Living Ignatius Press, March 1, 1999, Archbishop Fulton Sheen on youtube: Women Who Do Not Fail
"Poziom każdej cywilizacji jest determinowany w dużej mierze przez poziom kobiecości (t. j. osobowości kobiet tworzących tę cywilizację). Kiedy mężczyzna kocha kobietę, musi stać się jej wart. Im wyższe jej standardy moralne (w chrześcijaństwie znane jako cnoty), im bardziej szlachetny ma charakter, im bardziej jest oddana prawdzie, sprawiedliwości i dobroci, tym wyżej musi wznieść się mężczyzna, żeby być jej wart. Tak naprawdę historię cywilizacji można by napisać, odnosząc się do poziomu tworzących ją kobiet."
Poziom kobiety = Poziom cywilizacji
"To know the mighty works of God; to comprehend His wisdom and majesty and power; to appreciate, in degree, the wonderful working of His laws, surely all this must be a pleasing and acceptable mode of worship to the Most High, to whom ignorance can not be more grateful than knowledge." Copernicus as quoted in "Poland : The Knight Among Nations (1907) by Louis E. Van Norman, p. 290"The not-yet-censored by a Lutheran editor manuscript of Fr. Nicholas Copernicus'
Father canon Nicolaus Copernicus (Niclas Kopernik or Koppernigk, from a village Koperniki, [first mentioned in 1272, the Duchy of Nysa, Bishopric of Wroclaw, Poland], in the administrative district of Nysa, within Nysa County, Opole Voivodeship, Polish Silesia, southwestern Poland), born 9 February 1473, died 24 May 1543, was a Roman Catholic priest (adressed father, abbreviation: f/fa/fr), Roman Catholic Church administrator (held the office of canon, the office of Administrator of the Warmian chapter estate, Warmia, Poland), a graduate of Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland, jurist with a doctorate in the canon law of the Catholic Church, physician, mathematician, Poland's most outstandingly loyal diplomat and defender of Poland against the German Teutonic Order, and an astronomer. Fr. Copernicus' epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in 1543, is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution. His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.
ON THE REVOLUTIONS, Book One, Introduction
"all the good arts serve to draw man’s mind away from vices and lead it toward better things"
Skłodowska-Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was the first woman to
win a Nobel Prize, the first person and the only woman to win the Nobel
Prize twice, and the only person to win the Nobel Prize in two
different scientific fields, also the first woman to become a professor
at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be
entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.
She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. On both the paternal and maternal sides, the family had lost their property and fortunes through patriotic involvements in Polish national uprisings aimed at restoring Poland's independence. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Her achievements include the development of the theory of "radioactivity" (a term she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals.
While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie, who used both surnames, never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the first chemical element she discovered polonium, after her native country.
Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, of aplastic anaemia from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during World War I. (from Wikipedia)
Partitions lasted until 1918, when Poland regained its independence.
This meant that they were still in living memory when Poland was
partitioned again in 1939 between Hitler's Germany and the Soviet
Union, who declared that the Polish state was an 'abortion' which had
been abolished for ever. After Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in
1941, all Poland came under Nazi rule. This 'Fourth Partition',
although it lasted for less than six years, brought with it more
savagery and slaughter than all its predecessors. Hitler not only
destroyed the state but - if he had not been defeated - would have
proceeded to destroy the Polish nation as well by the same methods of
mass murder which he applied to the Jews.
There were four major insurrections in occupied Poland during the Partitions, and countless national conspiracies. In a way , the 1944 Warsaw Rising against the Germans was a fifth insurrection. All the risings ended in heroic defeat. But the Poles became practised conspirators, and developed a lasting disrespect for all authority - which for so long was foreign.
Russia and Prussia, especially, tried to suppress both Polish culture and language and the Catholic faith. In response, the Poles developed one of the most intense and self-sacrificing versions of Romantic nationalism ever seen in Europe. In its most extreme form - known as 'Messianism' - Poland was thought to be the collective reincarnation of Christ, to be crucified and then resurrected for the redemption of all nations.
..."Denn Deutschland ist ja nicht Polen. Polen blieb eins, als es das Land überhaupt nicht mehr gab, Jahrhunderte lang. Die Polen haben ihre Identität unter den Zaren und den Preußen nicht verloren, auch nicht unter den Nazis oder den Bolschewiken."... Die Welt on Benedict XVI's pilgrimage to His Holiness homeland - Germany
September 22, 2011
During the nineteenth century , the definition of a 'Pole' gradually changed. The Partition powers - on the 'divide and rule' principle - played off the ambitions of the other nationalities against those of the Slav and Catholic Poles. As a result, the old idea of a multi-racial Poland decayed, as the ethnic Poles came to suspect other races - especially Ukrainians and Jews - of collaborating with the Partition powers and of lacking commitment to the fight to regain independence.
During the Partitions, and especially after the November Rising in 1830, a large part of Poland's political, military and cultural leadership fled abroad. They settled in Paris, above all, where they became the recognised voice of their suppressed nation in the world. Much of the planning of the insurrections took place in Paris or London, and the best part of Poland's classic literature was composed in France. In the First World War, committees of Polish exiles in France and Switzerland were able to persuade Britain, France and the United States to restore an independent Poland after their victory. In the Second World War, the Poles followed the same tradition by setting up a government in exile near Paris and then in London.
In the later nineteenth century, there began an enormous economic emigration from the Polish lands, mostly of poor peasant families seeking a better life in North America or in the coal-mining areas of France, Belgium and Germany.
Out of these two very different currents of emigration there grew up the idea of Polonia - the notion that Poland did not exist only on the river Vistula but throughout the world, wherever Polish communities had settled. There is only one familiar parallel to this. It is the worldwide Diaspora of the Jews, and their attachment to the idea - and then the reality - of the land of Israel. The period of the Partitions left the Poles with violent but sometimes very mixed feelings about the rest of Europe. It was natural enough that they learned to hate and distrust Russians and Germans. But there were differences even here. With the Prussians and Germans, seen by Poles as inhuman and mechanical, it was difficult to make any contact. Polish attitudes to Russia, though, were more contradictory . There was contempt for Russian 'barbarousness', but also a fascination with Russia's size and power. There was loathing for the Russian schoolmaster bullying children who spoke Polish in class, but there was also real affection - even a sense of Slav kinship - for the open-heartedness and generosity of simple Russians. This is a mixture of emotions that has lasted.
During the Partitions, the Poles came to see France as their truest friend in the outside world. There was some background to this: the French and Polish royal families had intermarried, French had become the polite language of the great Polish aristocrats, and Poland had drawn many ideas from the Enlightenment and the Revolution of 1789 before its fall. Afterwards, Napoleon supported the Polish cause (for his own ends), and for most of the nineteenth century French governments not only welcomed Polish exiles but loudly endorsed their calls for the restoration of independence.
Apart from words, though, not much was done to help. As the years passed, and the twentieth century began, Polish feelings not just about France but about the United States and Britain became ambiguous. These were 'free' countries in which - France especially - Poles felt at home. At the same time, Poles came to realise that these governments would offer their country little more than sympathy and applause. The Poles felt themselves to be culturally part of 'the Christian West', but the west did not reciprocate - would, indeed, betray Poland for the sake of a quiet life. As a result, attitudes towards the west became the queer compound they still remain: yearning admiration combined with sardonic mistrust. The Second World War, which left most Poles with a sense that they had been betrayed and abandoned by their Allies in the West, strongly reinforced this trauma.
After nearly two centuries of intermittent persecution the Catholic Church in Poland has emerged more influential in civil society than in almost any other country in the world. Well over three-quarters of the population, including many members of the Polish United Workers' Party (the Communists) regard themselves as believers. At the same time, the Church itself in Poland is unusual in its attitudes. It is highly conservative over matters like abortion and contraception, but at the same time 'classless': a church of the people. It is intensely patriotic and often openly 'political', claiming a special right to act as the voice of popular opinion about anything from working conditions in factories to the curricula of universities.
This is the result of the Partitions, and especially of that 'Fourth Partition' of the Nazi occupation. After 1795, the Catholic Church became the main institution which preserved and defended Polish culture, language and identity against foreign oppression. The 'Black Madonna', the ancient icon of the Virgin which is kept in Poland's holiest shrine, the monastery at Częstochowa, became - with her sad, scarred face - the symbol of Poland's suffering and hope. Many priests and some bishops took part in the patriotic conspiracies and risings of the nineteenth century . As in Ireland under the English, the Catholic faith and the struggle for independence became fused and inseparable in the minds of the population. (...) "The Struggles for Poland" by Neal Ascherson
"Suffering can mean defeat; it can be regarded as proof of the absence or impotence of God. Polish spirituality, however, puts suffering in a different perspective." in THE SUFFERING, CHOSENNESS AND MISSION OF THE POLISH NATION by Fr dr Waldemar Chrostowski a professor at the Academy of Catholic Theology in Warsaw, Poland. full text here
"Sensitivity to transcendent values and detachment proper to the sacrum, by individuals and whole social groups, best expresses their religiosity. In the Polish society this religiosity was Christian for over a thousand years, but it also contains many elements of ancient Slavic culture. Throughout subsequent epochs the Christian understanding of God, forms of worship, sacraments, structures of the church and saints, as well as norms of life, pervaded the culture of inhabitants of the Polish Crown, and subsequently of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and of the Second Polish Republic. Christianity, in constant touch with the culture of Slavs living in the area between the Oder and the Dnieper and between the Baltic Sea and the Carpathians, enriched it with something new that became a principle of growth without destroying what was precious and proper."
in BASIC ELEMENTS OF POLISH RELIGIOSITY by Fr prof. dr Czeslaw Bartnik a professor at the Catholic University of Lublin full text here
language belongs to the Indo-European family, Slavic group, West Slavic
subgroup, and is spoken by nearly 38 million people in Poland and 44
million people throughout the world, as it is an important immigrant
language. Polish is written in the Roman alphabet, with "q", "v", and
"x" missing, and with "j" pronounced "y", "w" pronounced v, and "c"
pronounced "ts". However, there are a bewildering number of diacritical
marks, including acute accents, dots, hooks, and, in the case of the
"l", a bar. Polish vocabulary naturally resembles that of the other
Slavic languages. Such Polish words as "bez" (without), "most"
(bridge), "cena" (price), and "zima" (winter) are identical in Russian,
Czech, Bulgarian, Serbian and Croatian. Interestingly, the Polish words
for "north," "south," "east," and "west" are respectively "pólnoc"
(which also means "midnight"), "poludnie" (noon), "wschód" (rising),
and "zachód" (setting). Polish is the only Slavic language with nasal
proper title of the Poland that was finally destroyed in 1794 was 'The
Polish Commonwealth of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania'. This state ruled not only people we would now describe as
'ethnic Poles' - Slavs speaking Polish and almost all of the Catholic
religion - but also Lithuanians, Jews, Germans, Ukrainians,
Byelorussians, Tartars and even some Scots. Their religions were
Catholic, Judaic, Calvinist, Lutheran, Islamic, Eastern Orthodox and
'Uniate' (a section of the Orthodox Church which declared its
allegiance to the Vatican).
Today, the picture is different. Almost all the inhabitants of modern Poland are Slav Poles who speak Polish, and most of them are practising Catholics. The new Poland created in 1945 is - for almost the first time - a state of one nation. A few small 'national minorities' remain. But almost all Poland's Jews were murdered by the Nazis; the Germans were expelled; the Lithuanians, Ukrainians and Byelorussians vanished behind the new western frontiers of the Soviet Union, leaving only a few thousand living inside Poland's borders. 'Who are the Poles?' is now a fairly straightforward question to answer. But in history the answer was very different and much more complicated. "The Struggles for Poland" by Neal Ascherson
Poland's 'strangeness' arises from this very same problem of being 'a perfectly normal country between two abnormal ones'. Polish history seems outlandish to us because - after the disappearance of Poland from the atlas in 1794 - Poland was cut off from the outside world and ceased to be familiar. And the plight of Poland during the Partitions drove Poles to patterns of behaviour and thought which were so extreme - the great patriotic risings of the nineteenth century, the almost religious forms which nationalism took that to luckier peoples they seem unnatural and bewildering.
The country people of Poland, whose views and methods change only slowly. Catholic and patriotic, their ancient motto is 'We Nourish and Defend'.
All the same, the impression of 'strangeness' and the unfamiliarity of Poland have become realities which can't be argued away. Before reading an account of Polish history, it may be useful to summarise some of the elements of that history.
Where is Poland?
The brief answer is: in different places at different times. The Poles themselves, as an ethnic group, are a West Slav people speaking a Slav language whose relationship to Russian is - very roughly - like the relationship of Dutch to German. They have ranged over the flat, originally forested plains of northern Europe between the Oder river and the Pripet Marshes in the east. To the south, they have been bounded by the Carpathian range of mountains; to the north, by the Baltic Sea. The spinal chord of these lands is the Vistula river, rising in the southern mountains, flowing through Kraków in the south and Warsaw in central Poland to the sea at Gdańsk (Danzig). "The Struggles for Poland" by Neal Ascherson
Paulus Vladimiri (Polish: Paweł Włodkowic, ca. 1370–1435) was a distinguished scholar, jurist and rector of the Cracow Academy who defended Poland and native non-Christian tribes against the Teutonic Knights and its policies of conquest.
=Three key persons decisive for the victory over Marxism in 1920: The Most Holy Virgin Mary, Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, Father Ignacy Skorupka. Trzy kluczowe osoby, które zadecydowały o zwycięstwie nad marksizmem w 1920 roku: Najświętsza Maryja Panna, marszałek Józef Piłsudski, ks. Ignacy Skorupka. Memorial commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Warsaw by Czeslaw Dzwigaj, Strzelecki Park, Krakow. In mid-August 1920, Poland again saved European civilization from barbaric hordes. Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew HalatIt takes courage to defend such values like Faith, Reason, and Fatherland * Wymaga odwagi obrona takich wartości, jak Wiara, Rozum i Ojczyzna
Michal Boym SJ, Polish Jesuit, Chinese scientist, 1612-1659
卜弥格 （ 波兰， 1612—1659 ）
Seventeenth-century Polish Jesuits in China:
弥 格的《中国植物志》从许多方面来说，都是值得注意的。这是欧洲发表的第一部关于远东和东南亚大自然的著作。有些学者认为，卜弥格是第一个采用“植物志”这 个名称的科学家。它对中国的植物（和动物）的介绍和其中的插图，却是欧洲将近一百年来人们所知道的关于中国动植物的仅有的一份资料，而且它的内容涉及面很 广。后来一些热衷于编撰普及读物的人曾多次翻印过它，还有一些到过中国也了解中国的学者也利用过这份资料。
在 医药学领域，卜弥格曾在故乡担任过王室御医，对医药学颇有研究，来华后以深厚的西学理论来探讨中国的传统医学，颇有建树。其著作《中国医药概说》，收录中 药若干种，并附木版、铜版插图，此书现藏法国巴黎国立图书馆。《中国诊脉秘法》介绍了魏晋时期著名医学家王叔和的《脉经》，以及中国医学看舌苔的察病方 式，曾引起欧洲文化界的注意，后被译为欧洲多种文字刊行，此书现藏大英博物馆。
作为一个旅行家和渊博的学者，卜弥格 在他的一生中不仅到过中国，而且也曾多次到过非洲、印度和东南亚各国，通过对这些地方长时期的考察和研究，他撰写了大量有关这些国家，特别是中国古代的动 植物、矿物、医学、历史、地理、人种学、哲学、语言学和人民生活习俗等的具有很高科学价值的著作。虽然这些著作在他生前和身后很少得到出版，有不少散佚， 有的甚至被人剽窃、篡改或者冒名顶替地发表，使得他在中西文化交流史上所做的贡献鲜为人知，但是它们仍对后世产生了深远的影响，卜弥格也因此被誉为波兰的 马可·波罗。
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF CHINA
Works2. "Flora of China."
The Atlas of China
Latin Mappa Imperii Sinarum
The flora of China
Latin: Flora Sinensis
is one of the first European natural history books about China, published in Vienna in 1656
Of the survey of Chinese medicine
Latin: Specimen Medicinae Sinicae, sive Opuscula Medica ad Mentem Sinensium, Edidit Andreas Cleyer
The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse
Latin: Clavis Medica ad Chinarum Doctrinam de Pulsibus, autore Michaelo Boymo.
A manuscript on pulse lore written by the Polish father Michael Boym (1612-1659) was “lost” in Batavia in 1653. A French manuscript about “the secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse”, probably written in Canton (Guangdong) during the 1660s, was printed in Grenoble in 1671, but remained almost unnoticed. more
In the field of plants and animals, Boym's Latin book "Flora of China," published in 1656 in Vienna, the book contains a number of Chinese species of flowers and rare animals, marked with the Chinese name, along with 23 illustrations.
This is the first released in Europe on the Far East and Southeast Asia works of nature. Some scholars believe that Boym is the first use of "Flora" is the name of the scientist. Its Chinese plant (and animal) the introduction and one of the illustrations, but it is nearly a hundred years the people of Europe know about the Chinese flora and fauna of an information only, and its wide-ranging content. Later, some interested in the preparation of popular books were reprinted many times over it, and some have been to China but also understand Chinese scholars also made use of this information.
"Flora of China" was published and the Far East than in some other discussion of the writings of early Southeast Asian plants for decades. In Europe, regardless of the 17th century or 18th century, not a botanist can do as Boym, as in China, according to their own field trips and experience, written and published something.
3. "A Summary of Chinese Medicine", "The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse"
In the field of medicine, Boym has served as royal physician in his hometown of medicine who has studied, after the deep Western China to explore the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, many achievements. His book, "A Summary of Chinese Medicine", contains several kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, along with woodblock, copperplate illustrations, this book is Tibetan National Library in Paris, France. "The secrets of Chinese medicine, consisting of the most perfect knowledge of the pulse" describes the famous physician Wang Shu, and Wei-Jin period of "Pulse" and see the tongue of the Chinese medicine way police disease, has attracted the attention of the cultural sector in Europe, after being translated into many languagesin Europe published, the book now in the possession of the British Museum.
Third, the academic evaluation as a traveler and profound scholar, Boym in his life not only to China, and has repeatedly been to Africa, India and Southeast Asian countries, through a long period of these places study and research, he has written extensively about these countries, especially China ancient plants and animals, minerals, medicine, history, geography, ethnology, philosophy, linguistics and customs of other people's lives with a high scientific value of the book. Although these works during his lifetime, and behind seldom published, many Sanyi, some even being plagiarism, tampering, or impersonation to publish, making his contribution to the history of cultural exchange between the little-known, but they still had a profound impact on future generations, Boym therefore known as the Marco Polo in Poland.
January 8, 1894 – August 14, 1941
St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe was born in Zduńska Wola, in Russian Occupied Poland. He was baptized Raymond at the Parish Church. Already proficient in virtue, the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to him in 1906 A. D., about the time of his first communion.
She offered him the graces of virginity and martyrdom and asked him which he wanted. Filled with zeal, he begged for both, and was filled thereafter with the most ardent desire to love and serve this Immaculate Queen.
He joined the Order of Friars Minor Conventual at Lvov in Austrian Occupied Poland, where he took the name Maximilian, and after finishing preliminary studies he was sent to the International Seraphic College in Rome to pursue doctorates in philosophy and theology.
In 1917 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the conversion of Alphonse Ratisbon, renowned anti-Catholic and agnostic of Jewish lineage, St. Maximilian was moved by divine grace to found a pious association of the faithful known as the Militia of the Immaculate .
The Militia was to be a loosely organized tool in the hands of the Immaculate Mediatrix for the conversion and sanctification of non-Catholics, especially those inimical to the Church. Its members consecrated themselves to the Blessed Virgin Mary, invoked Her daily for the conversion of sinners, and strove by every licit means to build up the Kingdom of the Sacred Heart throughout the world.
Ordained to the priesthood in 1918, St. Maximilian returned to Poland to teach Church History in Cracow, where he organized the first group of the Militia outside of Italy. Because of ill health he was freed to devote his time exclusively to the promotion of the Militia, whereupon he founded the "Knight of the Immaculate," a monthly Roman Catholic Magazine promoting the knowledge, love and service of the Immaculate Virgin, in the conversion of all souls to Christ Our Lord.
The phenomenal growth of this apostolate led to the foundation of the first city of the Immaculate, Niepokalanow in 1929. This was a friary of Franciscan priests and brothers engaged in the use of all kinds of modern equipment so as to promote via the mass media the Militia through all parts of Poland.
St. Maximilian, heeding the call of the Holy
Father to all religious, to come to the aid of the missionary efforts
of the universal Church, volunteered to go to the Orient.
た。Between 1930 and 1936 he took a series of missions to Japan, where he
founded a monastery at the outskirts of Nagasaki, a
Japanese paper and a seminary. Mugenzai
no Sono (the Garden of the Immaculate), the monastery he founded
remains prominent in the Roman Catholic Church in Japan. Kolbe decided
to build the monastery on a mountain side that, according to folk
beliefs, was not the side best suited to be in harmony
with nature. When the atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Kolbe's
monastery was saved because the blast of the bomb hit the other side of
the mountain, which took the main force of the blast. Had Kolbe built
the monastery on the preferred side of mountain as he was advised, his
work and all of his fellow friars would have been destroyed.
St. Maximilian returned to Niepokalanow, as it spiritual father, in 1936 and under his able direction the number of the friars there grew above 900 in the months preceding World War II. Publishing apostolate was producing 1,000,000 magazines monthly as well all 125,000 copies of a daily paper for the 1,000,000 members of the Militia worldwide.
After the invasion of Poland by the German Wermacht in September of 1939, the friars dispersed and Niepokalanow was ransacked. St. Maximilian and about 40 others were taken to holding camps, first in Germany, and later in Poland. By the mercy of the Immaculate they were released and allow to return home on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the same year.
During the war the friars turned to caring for about 5,000 Jewish refugees of the Poznan district as well as providing a repair shop for the farming machinery of the locale.
To incriminate St. Maximilian, the German Gestapo permitted one final printing of the "Knight of the Immaculte" in December of 1940. On 17 February 1941, they came to Niepokalanow and arrested St. Maximlian. He was taken to Pawiak Prision in German Occupied Warsaw, Poland, and on 28 May was transferred to Auschwitz as prisoner #16670.
Over the entrance gate of this concentration camp was a sign in German, ARBEIT MACHT FREI ("Work makes free!"). In reality, upon entering the prisoners were told that all Jews had the right to live only two weeks, Roman Catholic priests 1 month.
At the German Death Camp Auschwitz (der Konzentrationslager des Deutschen Reichs, Vernichtungslager Auschwitz) Roman Catholics were put to death along with persons of Jewish lineage. The objective of Hitler, in his hatred for Jesus Christ, was both to remove all witness to the truth of the original revelation of the God of Israel (the Jewish nation), as well as all who came to believe in Him in His Incarnation by Mary (Roman Catholics).
Thus, St. Maximilian, Knight of the Immaculate Virgin, was placed by Divine Providence at the very center of the ideologic and spiritual conflict of the century, and was destined by God to be the sign of contradiction to a nation given over to diabolic hatred of God and His people.
St. Maximilian, in response to the vicious hatred and brutality of the prison guards, was ever obedient, meek, and forgiving. He gave counsel to all his fellow prisoners "Trust in the Immaculate!" "Forgive!" "Love your enemies and pray for your persecutors!" He was noted for his generosity in surrendering his food despite the ravages of starvation that he suffered, for always going to the end of the line of the infirmary, despite the acute tuberculosis afflicting him.
In the end, by the maternal mediation of the Virgin Mary, he
received the grace to be intimately conformed to Christ in death.
Pope Paul VI beatified St. Maximilian in 1973 and Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1982 as a martyr of charity.
Maximilian Mary Kolbe is the patron saint of drug addicts, political
prisoners, families, journalists, prisoners, amateur radio and the
pro-life movement. Pope John Paul II declared him "The Patron Saint of
Our Difficult Century".
St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe's life and work continues today in the religious institutes of the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate, the Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate, at the Academy of the Immaculate, and in the movement known as the Mission of the Immaculate Mediatrix.
This document is part of the Home Page of St. Francis of Assisi maintained by the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate.
Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate are a Roman Catholic Religious
Institute of solemn vows headquartered at Benevento, Italy. Their Home
Page is maintained from the Marian Friary of Our Lady Queen of the
Seraphic Order, New Bedford, MA, United States of America.
Eternal Word Television Network
February 16, 2011
Miracle of Our Lady of Akita
CATHOLIC MORAL TRUTH
1973 年から1982年まで、秋田市郊外の、戦後に日本で生まれ た小さな修道会・聖体奉仕会で起きた一連の聖母マリアに関する超自然的な出来事の数々は、摂 理的に出来事に立会い、詳細を記録しながら資料を収集していった安田貞治神父（神言修道会） の著作によって世界中に知られており、現在においても国内と周辺諸国、そして世界からの巡礼 者が絶えません。
聖体奉仕会・全聾の障害を持った笹川カツ子姉妹の身に突然起こった神秘に満ちた出来事の数々、そ れは聖体におけるイエスの現存の栄光の現われ、守護の天使の現われと導き、笹川姉妹の左手に現われ た十字架形の聖痕、聖母木像の右手に浮かんだ十字架形の傷と血、聖母木像全体から汗がしたたり聖 堂全体に類まれな芳香を放ったこと、聖母マリアの重大な警告をともなう呼びかけのメッセージ、海 外からの来訪者やカトリック教徒以外にも目撃証人が多数に及んだ聖母木像からの数年間におよぶ101 回の涙の奇跡、そして全聾の癒しの予告と成就など、数多くの天からの干渉と驚くべき奇跡によっ て、神秘に満ちた三位一体の神（父と子と聖霊）の臨在の証しが世界に示されました。
そ して、1984年には、当時の教区責任者、伊藤庄治郎司教による 慎重で入念な調査の結果、出来事の神秘的な超自然性と信仰における実りを認め、崇敬と巡礼を 許可する声明が出されました。
こ の奇跡は、歴史を旅する教会と世界のために与えられた重大な神の しるしであり、これからの世界の決定的な社会的、精神的危機の時代に、さらに重大で大胆な改 心の呼びかけのしるしとなっていくでしょう。秋田の聖母マリアは、日本の地に恵みの光として 現われた、偉大な聖母巡礼地です。
こ の奇跡を通して、創造主であり天の御父である主なる神は、生きて おられ、本当に共におられる、あわれみ深い真の神であることを世界に知らせ、示しています。
2005 年10月23日 世界宣教の日 聖体の特別年の終わりに
フ ランシスコ 小林 徹也
From 1973 to 1982, in the suburb of Akita, communion service took place in meeting the small monastery was born in Japan after the war many of the supernatural happenings on the set of the Virgin Mary, a witness to events in Providence, more While recording the priest began to collect materials Yasuda Sadaharu (Divine Word religious order) is known worldwide by copyright, with current domestic and neighbors leave, never free, and pilgrims from around the world .
Many mysterious events took place suddenly happened to the sister of disability Katsuko Sasakawa all Deaf Eucharist Service Association, which appeared in the Eucharist the glory of the existence of Jesus, appeared and guided the guardian angel of a sister Sasagawa I now left the cross-shaped stigmata, bloody wounds and came to the right of cross-shaped wooden statue of Our Lady, sweat dripping from across the wooden statue of Our Lady extraordinary fragrance emitted by the whole church, Our Lady call alert message accompanied by a significant, lasting from a wooden statue of the Virgin lasted for several years a number of witnesses other than Catholic and foreign visitors from 101 times the miracle of tears, heal the deaf and the whole and achievement of such notice, the amazing miracle from heaven and a number of interference by, mysterious Triune God (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) has shown evidence of the presence of the world.
And in 1984, Chief parish at the time, the result of careful research, prudent by Bishop Department Itou Shiyouzi, the event showed the fruits of faith and supernatural mystic is issued statements to allow pilgrims and Takashi Takashi Mashita.
This miracle is a serious sign of God's Church and the world given to the travel history of the world of the future social and critical during times of spiritual crisis, more serious and calls for bold reform Could become a sign of You. Our Lady of Akita, the light appeared as a blessing in the land of Japan, a great pilgrimage site of Our Lady.
Through this miracle, the Lord God is the Creator and Heavenly Father, are alive, who are both really know the real world that God merciful are shown.
At the end of the Eucharist in a special World Mission Day on October 23, 2005.
Kobayashi Tetsuya Francisco
Sister Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa in Akita
of Poland is level, and - especially in the east - there are large
primeval forests where boar , elk, wolves and bison can still be seen.
Both these facts are politically important. The flatness has meant that
Poland lies on the natural invasion route for those entering Europe
from the east and for those attacking Russia from the west. It also
means that Poland has no 'natural frontiers' across that east-west
axis. As for the forests, they have provided shelter for generations of
partisan fighters, most recently for the guerrilla soldiers of the
resistance against Nazi occupation. Most of Poland has fertile soil,
although towards the east and north-east it becomes poor and sandy,
sometimes broken up by marshes and by constellations of lakes. But it
is rich in minerals. From the earliest times, the salt deposits near
Kraków were a source of wealth and trade, and amber from the Baltic
beaches was exported all over Europe. In modern times, first-class
coking coal was discovered in Upper Silesia, in the south, and most
recently mines for sulphur, copper and lignite (brown coal) have been
opened up. But Poland depends on other countries for iron ore and for
oil, although one of the first petroleum fields in Europe was
established in East Galicia - a part of Poland annexed to the Soviet
Union since 1945.
Poland's frontiers have changed wildly throughout history. Sometimes Poland has been a sprawling empire stretching almost from the Black Sea to the Baltic. At other times it has been a little landlocked nucleus, or has vanished completely. At present, since the Allied leaders in 1945 decided to shift it bodily to the west, Poland is roughly where it was when it began a thousand years ago, in the time of the Piast dynasty. This series of changes led Bismarck, the supreme Prussian statesman of the nineteenth century, to dismiss Poland as a 'seasonal state', a sort of sandbank which grows larger or smaller depending on how the rains fill the river. (...) "The Struggles for Poland" by Neal Ascherson
die Deutschen Hitler wählten? Why did the Germans elect Hitler?
Dlaczego Niemcy wybrali Hitlera? Continuum: Expansionismus,
Chauvinismus, blinder Gehorsam; expansionism, chauvinism, blind
obedience; ekspanzjonizm, szowinizm, ślepe posłuszeństwo. Was der König
eroberte [Friedrich der Große], der Fürst formte [Otto von Bismarck],
der Feldmarschall verteidigte [Hindenburg], rettete und einigte der
Soldat [Adolf Hitler]. What the King [Frederick the Great] conquered,
the Prince [Otto von Bismarck] shaped, the Field Marshal [Hindenburg]
defended, saved and united the Soldier [Adolf Hitler]. Co król
[Fryderyk "Wielki"] podbił, książę [Otto von Bismarck] uformował,
marszałek polny [Hindenburg] obronił, uratował i zjednoczył żołnierz
The origins of Nazi ideas are deeply rooted in German history. According to the Hitler's party election poster core elements of Nazi ideology, such as expansionism, chauvinism, and blind obedience can be traced back to the 18th century wave of the Drang nach Osten ("drive toward the East"). Die Ursprünge der NS-Ideen sind tief in der deutschen Geschichte verwurzelt. Nach Angaben Hitlers Partei Wahlplakat, Kernelemente der NS-Ideologie als Expansionismus, Chauvinismus und blinden Gehorsam geht auf das 18. Jahrhundert Welle der Drang nach Osten zu verfolgen. Początki nazistowskich idei są głęboko zakorzenione w niemieckiej historii. Według plakatu wyborczego partii Hitlera, podstawowe elementy ideologii nazistowskiej, jak ekspansjonizm, szowinizm i ślepe posłuszeństwo sięgają do osiemnastowiecznej fali Drang nach Osten ("parcia na wschód").
THE GERMAN KULTUR IN POLAND
The Nazi Kultur in Poland by several authors of necessity temporarily anonymous
Written in Warsaw under the German Occupation and published for the POLISH MINISTRY OF INFORMATION by
HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE
THE GERMAN KULTUR IN POLAND
The Nazi Kultur in Poland
FOREWORD by John Masefield, O. M. - VI
A NOTE FROM THE AUTHORS IN WARSAW - Vlll
A NOTE FROM THE EDITORS IN LONDON - X
I SPOTLIGHTS - 1
II THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH – 7
III THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES – 27
IV ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS - 32
V UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH - 51
VI LIBRARIES 76
VII ARCHIVES - 89
VIII MUSEUMS AND COLLECTIONS - 93
IX BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS - 113
X WARSAW CASTLE - 124
XI BOOKSHOPS AND PUBLISHING - 128
XII READING - 142
XIII THE PRESS - 146
XIV BROADCASTING - 176
XV "CULTURAL POLICY" - 183
XVI THE THEATRE - 188
XVII MUSIC - 198
VIII LITERATURE - 206
XIX ART - 210
XX THE FILM - 213
XXI THE BACKGROUND - 215
|The Second World War
losses after the September 1st and 17th, 1939, aggression of Nazi
Germany and Soviet Russia against Poland
Second world war losses: total killed per cent of 1939 population (Sleza Society graph)
WW2 second world war losses: civilians killed per cent of total killed (Sleza Society graph)
Poland's Population Second World War (WW2) - Related Loss
|Karol Józef Wojtyla, John Paul
II May 18, 1920-April 2, 2005
VATICAN CITY, APRIL 2, 2005 (Zenit.org).- Born Karol Józef Wojtyla, John Paul II left his mark occupying the third longest pontificate in the history of the Church.
Young Karol was born in Wadowice, a small city 35 miles southwest of Krakow, May 18, 1920.
The second of two sons born to Karol Wojtyla and Emilia Kaczorowska, his small family would not witness his rise to the papacy. His mother died in 1929, his brother Edmund, a doctor, died in 1932 and his father, a non-commissioned army officer, died in 1941.
He made his First Holy Communion at age 9, and was confirmed at 18. Upon graduation from high school in Wadowice in 1938, he and his father moved to Krakow where Karol entered the Jagiellonian University to study literature and philosophy.
The Nazi occupation forces closed the university in 1939, and young Karol had to work in a quarry, and then in the Solvay chemical factory to earn his living and to avoid being deported to Germany.
In 1942, aware of his call to the priesthood, he began courses in the clandestine seminary of Krakow, run by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Krakow. At the same time, Karol Wojtyla was one of the pioneers of the "Rhapsodic Theatre," also clandestine.
After the Second World War, he continued his studies in the major seminary of Krakow, once it had re-opened, and in the faculty of theology of the Jagiellonian University, until his priestly ordination in Krakow on Nov. 1, 1946.
Soon after, Cardinal Sapieha sent him to Rome where he worked under the guidance of the French Dominican, Garrigou-Lagrange. He finished his doctorate in theology in 1948 with a thesis on the topic of faith in the works of St. John of the Cross. At that time, during his vacations, he exercised his pastoral ministry among the Polish immigrants of France, Belgium and Holland.
In 1948, he returned to Poland and was vicar of various parishes in Krakow as well as chaplain for the university students until 1951, when he took up again his studies on philosophy and theology. In 1953, he defended a thesis on the ethical system of Max Scheler at Lublin's Catholic University.
He later he became professor of moral theology and social ethics in the major seminary of Krakow and in the Faculty of Theology of Lublin.
On July 4, 1958, he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Krakow by Pope Pius XII, and was consecrated bishop Sept. 28, 1958.
On Jan. 13, 1964, he was nominated Archbishop of Krakow by Pope Paul VI, who made him a cardinal June 26, 1967.
Besides taking part in the Second Vatican Council with an important contribution to the elaboration of the constitution "Gaudium et spes," Cardinal Wojtyla participated in all the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops.
Since the start of his pontificate Oct. 16, 1978, Pope John Paul II has completed 104 pastoral visits outside of Italy, and 146 within Italy. As Bishop of Rome he has visited 317 of the 333 parishes.
His principal documents include 14 encyclicals, 15 apostolic exhortations, 11 apostolic constitutions and 45 apostolic letters.
The Pope has also published five books: "Crossing the Threshold of Hope" (October, 1994); "Gift and Mystery: On the 50th Anniversary of My Priestly Ordination" (November, 1996); "Roman Triptych – Meditations," a book of poems (March, 2003); "Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way" (May, 2004) and "Memory and Identity" (February, 2005).
John Paul II has presided at 147 beatification ceremonies, proclaiming 1,338 blesseds, and 51 canonization ceremonies, canonizing 482 saints. He has held 9 consistories in which he created 231 (+ 1 in pectore) cardinals. He has also convened six plenary meetings of the College of Cardinals.
The Holy Father has presided at 15 synods of bishops: six ordinary (1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001), one extraordinary (1985) and eight special (1980, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998(2) and 1999).
His contact with people has exceeded that of any other Pope. More than 17,600,000 pilgrims have participated in the more than 1,160 General Audiences held on Wednesdays, and more than 8 million pilgrims participate in the events of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 alone.
quixotic and controversial deputy minister of health, government
sanitary inspector, and chief environmental health officer, Zbigniew Halat MD
is engaged in a personal crusade to shake the health service out of the
spiritual atrophy induced by 45 years of communism. Hard working,
self reliant, aggressive, and abrasively masculine,
this man of Promethean energies put me in mind of a nineteenth century northern mill owner"
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland: Too many advisers, not enough aid, British Medical Journal, May 30, 1992
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland; Pollution most foul, British Medical Journal, June 6, 1992;
Karin Chopin, Letters from Poland, Post-totalitarian medicine, British Medical Journal, June 13, 1992
MOVE FOR HEALTH WALK POLAND LAND OF THE FREE
Poles are fiercely independent and stand up for their beliefs. US Ambassador to Poland Victor Ashe, Sept 24, 2008
The Fundamental Rights Report 2019 by European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA): “FRAs 2012 survey on violence against women remains the only source for EU comparable data”. Why no recent data from Germany, Sweden, UK, and other countries where girls and women are deprived of any protection against rapists?
Girls and women in many countries of Europe were exposed to high levels of violence well before the Soros/Merkel invasion of military age male rapists on Europe. Poland stands up for the value of human dignity and the interest of girls and women. What about you Mr. Timmermans?Global Movement for the Restoration of Human Rights in the European Union
Poland Chapter named after George Ivanov
Globalny Ruch na rzecz Przywrócenia Praw Człowieka w Unii Europejskiej
Oddział Polski imienia Jerzego Iwanowa Szajnowicza
Przed egzekucją wykonaną przez Niemców 4. stycznia 1943 wołał "Niech żyje Polska Niech żyje Grecja"
Γεώργιος Ιβάνοφ Πριν την εκτέλεση από τους Γερμανούς 4 Ιανουαρίου 1943 φώναξε: Ζήτω η Πολωνία, ζήτω η Ελλάδα». Executed on January 4, 1943. Before the execution shouted:"Long live Poland, long live Greece."
Jerzy Iwanow Szajnowicz Γεώργιος Ιβάνοφ George Ivanov
wielki Polak, bohater antyniemieckiego ruchu oporu w Grecji, an agent of British intelligence
his execution by the Germans statue in Thessaloniki